Leung BM, Kaplan BJ. Perinatal depression: prevalence, risks, and the nutrition link--a review of the literature. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(9):1566–75.
Van den Bergh BRH, Mulder EJH, Mennes M, Glover V. Antenatal maternal anxiety and stress and the neurobehavioural development of the fetus and child: links and possible mechanisms. A review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2005;29(2):237–58.
Dennis CL, Allen K. Interventions (other than pharmacological, psychosocial or psychological) for treating antenatal depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;4:CD006795.
Goedhart G, Snijders AC, Hesselink AE, Van Poppel MN, Bonsel GJ, Vrijkotte TGM. Maternal depressive symptoms in relation to perinatal mortality and morbidity: results from a large multiethnic cohort study. Psychosom Med. 2010;72(8):769–76.
Orr ST, Miller CA. Maternal depressive symptoms and the risk of poor pregnancy outcome. Review of the literature and preliminary findings. Epidemiol Rev. 1995;17(1):165–71.
Dayan J, Creveuil C, Dreyfus M, Herlicoviez M, Baleyte JM, O’Keane V. Developmental model of depression applied to prenatal depression: role of present and past life events, past emotional disorders and pregnancy stress. PLoS ONE. 2010;5(9):e12942.
Marcus SM, Flynn HA, Blow FC, Barry KL. Depressive symptoms among pregnant women screened in obstetrics settings. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2003;12(4):373–80.
Rubertsson C, Waldenström U, Wickberg B. Depressive mood in early pregnancy: Prevalence and women at risk in a national Swedish sample. J Reprod Infant Psychol. 2003;21(2):113–23.
Harvey ST, Pun PK. Analysis of positive Edinburgh depression scale referrals to a consultation liaison psychiatry service in a two-year period. Int J Ment Health Nurs. 2007;16(3):161–7.
Eberhard-Gran M, Slinning K. Nedstemthet og depresjon i forbindelse med fødsel (Depressed mood and depression associated with the birth). 2007.
Eberhard-Gran M, Tambs K, Opjordsmoen S, Skrondal A, Eskild A. Depression during pregnancy and after delivery: a repeated measurement study. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2004;25(1):15–21.
Karlsen S, Nazroo JY. Relation between racial discrimination, social class, and health among ethnic minority groups. Am J Public Health. 2002;92(4):624–31.
Williams DR. Race, socioeconomic status, and health. The added effects of racism and discrimination. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;896:173–88.
Fung K, Dennis CL. Postpartum depression among immigrant women. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2010;23(4):342–8.
Bhugra D. Cultural identities and cultural congruency: a new model for evaluating mental distress in immigrants. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2005;111(2):84–93.
Bhugra D, Becker MA. Migration, cultural bereavement and cultural identity. World Psychiatry. 2005;4(1):18–24.
Eberhard-Gran M, Garthus-Niegel S, Garthus-Niegel K, Eskild A. Postnatal care: a cross-cultural and historical perspective. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2010;13(6):459–66.
Edge D. Falling through the net - Black and minority ethnic women and perinatal mental healthcare: health professionals’ views. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2010;32(1):17–25.
Husain N, Cruickshank K, Husain M, Khan S, Tomenson B, Rahman A. Social stress and depression during pregnancy and in the postnatal period in British Pakistani mothers: a cohort study. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2012;140(3):268–76.
Lansakara N, Brown SJ, Gartland D. Birth outcomes, postpartum health and primary care contacts of immigrant mothers in an Australian nulliparous pregnancy cohort study. Matern Child Health J. 2010;14(5):807–16.
Miszkurka M, Goulet L, Zunzunegui MV. Antenatal depressive symptoms among Canadian-born and immigrant women in Quebec: differential exposure and vulnerability to contextual risk factors. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2012;47(10):1639–48.
Miszkurka M, Goulet L, Zunzunegui MV. Contributions of immigration to depressive symptoms among pregnant women in Canada. Can J Public Health. 2010;101(5):358–64.
Prady SL, Picket KE, Croudace T, Fairley L, Bloor K, Gilbody S, et al. Psychological distress during pregnancy in a multi-ethnic community: findings from the born in Bradford cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(4):e60693.
Wangel AM, Schei B, Ryding EL, Ostman M. Mental health status in pregnancy among native and non-native Swedish-speaking women: a Bidens study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012;91(12):1395–401.
Jenum AK, Mørkrid K, Sletner L, Vangen S, Torper JL, Nakstad B, et al. Impact of ethnicity on gestational diabetes identified with the WHO and the modified International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria: a population-based cohort study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012;166(2):317–24.
Jenum AK, Sletner L, Vangen S, Mørkrid K, Andersen LF, Nakstad B, et al. The STORK Groruddalen research programme: A population-based cohort study of gestational diabetes, physical activity, and obesity in pregnancy in a multiethnic population. Rationale, methods, study population, and participation rates. Scand J Public Health. 2010;38(5):60–70.
Cox J. A guide to the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. 2003.
Cox JL, Holden JM, Sagovsky R. Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Br J Psychiatry. 1987;150:782–6.
Murray L, Carothers AD. The validation of the Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale on a community sample. Br J Psychiatry. 1990;157:288–90.
Cox JL, Chapman G, Murray D, Jones P. Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in non-postnatal women. J Affect Disord. 1996;39(3):185–9.
Bunevicius A, Kusiminskas L, Pop VJ, Pedersen CA, Bunevicius R. Screening for antenatal depression with the Edinburgh Depression Scale. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2009;30(4):238–43.
Rubertsson C, Borjesson K, Berglund A, Josefsson A, Sydsjo G. The Swedish validation of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) during pregnancy. Nord J Psychiatry. 2011;65(6):414–8.
Murray D, Cox JL. Screening for depression during pregnancy with the edinburgh depression scale (EDDS). J Reprod Infant Psychol. 1990;8(2):99–107.
Husain N, Rahman A, Husain M, Khan SM, Vyas A, Tomenson B, et al. Detecting Depression in Pregnancy: Validation of EPDS in British Pakistani Mothers. J Immigr Minor Health. 2014;16(6):1085–92.
Hewitt C, Gilbody SM, Brealey S, Paulden M, Palmer S, Mann R, et al. Methods to identify postnatal depression in primary care: an integrated evidence synthesis and value of information analysis. Health Technol Assess. 2009;13(36):1–145. 147-230.
Berle JO, Arre TF, Mykletun A, Dahl AA, Holsten F. Screening for postnatal depression. Validation of the Norwegian version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and assessment of risk factors for postnatal depression. J Affect Disord. 2003;76(1-3):151–6.
Nordeng H, Hansen C, Garthus-Niegel S, Eberhard-Gran M. Fear of childbirth, mental health, and medication use during pregnancy. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2012;15(3):203–9.
Dorheim SK, Bjorvatn B, Eberhard-Gran M. Insomnia and depressive symptoms in late pregnancy: a population-based study. Behav Sleep Med. 2012;10(3):152–66.
Garthus-Niegel S, Von Soest T, Vollrath M, Eberhard-Gran M. The impact of subjective birth experiences on post-traumatic stress symptoms: a longitudinal study. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2013;16(1):1–10.
Gjestland K, Bø K, Owe KM, Eberhard-Gran M. Do pregnant women follow exercise guidelines? Prevalence data among 3482 women, and prediction of low-back pain, pelvic girdle pain and depression. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(8):515–20.
Dorheim SK, Bjorvatn B, Eberhard-Gran M. Sick leave during pregnancy: a longitudinal study of rates and risk factors in a Norwegian population. BJOG. 2013;120(5):521–30.
Storksen HT, Eberhard-Gran M, Garthus-Niegel S, Eskild A. Fear of childbirth; the relation to anxiety and depression. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012;91(2):237–42.
Storksen HT, Eberhard-Gran M, Garthus-Niegel S, Eskild A. The impact of previous birth experiences on maternal fear of childbirth. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2013;92(3):318–24.
Dorheim SK, Bjorvatn B, Eberhard-Gran M. Can insomnia in pregnancy predict postpartum depression? A longitudinal, population-based study. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(4):e94674.
Garthus-Niegel S, Størksen HT, Torgersen L, Von Soest T, Eberhard-Gran M. The Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire: a factor analytic study. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2011;32(3):160–3.
Eberhard-Gran M, Eskild A, Tambs K, Schei B, Opjordsmoen S. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: validation in a Norwegian community sample. Nord J Psychiatry. 2001;55(2):113–7.
Marshall J. Edinburgh Poastnatal depression scale (EPDS) Translated Versions. 2006.
Harris B, Huckle P, Thomas R, Johns S, Fung H. The use of rating scales to identify post-natal depression. Br J Psychiatry. 1989;154:813–7.
Kendler KS, Neale MC, Kessler RC, Health AC, Eaves LJ. The lifetime history of major depression in women, Reliability of diagnosis and heritability. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993;50(11):863–70.
Sommer C, Sletner L, Jenum AK, Morkrid K, Andersen LF, Birkeland KI, Mosdøl A: Ethnic differences in maternal dietary patterns are largely explained by socio-economic score and integration score: a population-based study. Food Nutr Res 2013 jul 8; 57. doi: 10.3402/fnr.v57i0.21164
Apter G, Devouche E, Gratier M. Perinatal mental health. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2011;199(8):575–7.
Bennett HA, Einarson A, Taddio A, Koren G, Einarson TR. Prevalence of depression during pregnancy: systematic review. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;103(4):698–709.
Onozawa K, Kumar RC, Adams D, Doré C, Glover V. High EPDS scores in women from ethnic minorities living in London. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2003;6 Suppl 2:S51–5.
Giardinelli L, Innocenti A, Benni L, Stefanini MC, Lino G, Lunardi C, et al. Depression and anxiety in perinatal period: Prevalence and risk factors in an Italian sample. Arch Women’s Mental Health. 2012;15(1):21–30.
Matteo B, Miriam L, Giulia B, Salvatore C, Anita C, Lorenza D, et al. Determinants of ante-partum depression: a multicenter study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2012;47(12):1959–65.
Karacam Z, Ancel G. Depression, anxiety and influencing factors in pregnancy: a study in a Turkish population. Midwifery. 2009;25(4):344–56.
Golbasi Z, Kelleci M, Kisacik G, Cetin A. Prevalence and correlates of depression in pregnancy among Turkish women. Matern Child Health J. 2010;14(4):485–91.
Abujilban SK, Abuidhail J, Al-Modallal H, Hamaideh S, Mosemli O. Predictors of antenatal depression among jordanian pregnant women in their third trimester. Health Care Women Int. 2014;35(2):200–15.
Mohammad KI, Gamble J, Creedy DK. Prevalence and factors associated with the development of antenatal and postnatal depression among Jordanian women. Midwifery. 2011;27(6):e238–45.
Husain N, Parveen A, Husain M, Saeed Q, Jafri F, Rahman R, et al. Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of perinatal depression: a cohort study from urban Pakistan. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2011;14(5):395–403.
Rahman A, Iqbal Z, Harrington R. Life events, social support and depression in childbirth: perspectives from a rural community in the developing world. Psychol Med. 2003;33(7):1161–7.
Humayun A, Haider II, Imran N, Iqbal H, Humayun N. Antenatal depression and its predictors in lahore, Pakistan. East Mediterr Health J. 2013;19(4):327–32.
Savarimuthu RJ, Ezhilarasu P, Charles H, Antonisami B, Kurian S, Jacob KS. Post-partum depression in the community: a qualitative study from rural South India. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2010;56(1):94–102.
Adewuya AO, Ola BA, Dada AO, Fasoto OO. Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as a screening tool for depression in late pregnancy among Nigerian women. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2006;27(4):267–72.
Felice E, Saliba J, Grech J, Cox J. Validation of the Maltese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2006;9(2):75–80.
Bjerke SE, Vangen S, Nordhagen R, Ytterdahl T, Magnus P, Stray-Pedersen B. Postpartum depression among Pakistani women in Norway: prevalence and risk factors. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2008;21(12):889–94.
Husain N, Bevc I, Husain M, Chaudry IB, Atif N, Rahman A. Prevalence and social correlates of postnatal depression in a low income country. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2006;9(4):197–202.
Benjamin D, Chandramohan A, Annie IK, Prasad J, Jacob KS. Validation of the tamil version of Edinburgh post-partum depression scale. J Obstet Gynecol India. 2005;55:242–3.
Aydin N, Inandi T, Yigit A, Hodoglugil NN. Validation of the Turkish version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale among women within their first postpartum year. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2004;39(6):483–6.