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  1. The policy drive for the UK National Health Service (NHS) has focused on the need for high quality services informed by evidence of best practice. The introduction of care pathways and protocols to standardise...

    Authors: Debra E Bick, Jo Rycroft-Malone and Marina Fontenla
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:47
  2. Economic theory provides the philosophical foundation for valuing costs in judging medical and public health interventions. When evaluating smoking cessation interventions, accurate data on costs are essential...

    Authors: Jennifer Prah Ruger, Karen M Emmons, Margaret H Kearney and Milton C Weinstein
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:46
  3. Perinatal death is a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Regular perinatal audit may identify suboptimal care related to perinatal deaths and thus appropriate measures fo...

    Authors: Hussein L Kidanto, Ingrid Mogren, Jos van Roosmalen, Angela N Thomas, Siriel N Massawe, Lennarth Nystrom and Gunilla Lindmark
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:45
  4. Multiple pregnancies are at high risk for preterm birth, and therefore an important cause of infant mortality and morbidity. A pessary is a simple and potentially effective measure for the prevention of preter...

    Authors: Maud A Hegeman, Dick J Bekedam, Kitty WM Bloemenkamp, Anneke Kwee, Dimitri NM Papatsonis, Joris AM van der Post, Arianne C Lim, Hubertina CJ Scheepers, Christine Willekes, Johannes J Duvekot, Marc Spaanderman, Martina Porath, Jim van Eyck, Monique C Haak, Marielle G van Pampus, Hein W Bruinse…
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:44

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2012 12:37

  5. Utilization of maternal health services is associated with improved maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Considering global and national interests in the Millennium Development Goal and Nigeria's high level ...

    Authors: Stella Babalola and Adesegun Fatusi
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:43
  6. Preterm labour is the main cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in the Western world. At present, there is evidence that tocolysis for 48 hours is useful in women with threatened preterm labour at least ...

    Authors: Carolien Roos, Liesbeth HCJ Scheepers, Kitty WM Bloemenkamp, Annemiek Bolte, Jerome Cornette, Jan B Derks, Hans JJ Duvekot, Jim van Eyck, Joke H Kok, Anneke Kwee, Ashley Merién, Brent C Opmeer, Mariëlle G van Pampus, Dimitri NM Papatsonis, Martina M Porath, Joris AM van der Post…
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:42
  7. Emerging evidence from a recent pilot universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) programme suggests that the burden of obstetric complications associated with mode of delivery is not limited to maternal and pe...

    Authors: Bolajoko O Olusanya and Olumuyiwa A Solanke
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:41
  8. Previous work by us and others had suggested that cervical electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) may be predictive of the outcome of induced labour. We sought to determine which probe configuration of the EI...

    Authors: Roobin P Jokhi, Brian H Brown and Dilly OC Anumba
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:40
  9. Little is known about how optimism/pessimism and health-related quality of life compare across cultures.

    Authors: Cheryl A Moyer, Huixia Yang, Yao Kwawukume, Anu Gupta, YuChun Zhu, Isaac Koranteng, Yasmin Elsayed, YuMei Wei, Jonathan Greene, Cecilia Calhoun, Geraldine Ekpo, Megan Beems, Megan Ryan, Richard Adanu and Frank Anderson
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:39
  10. At present, women with threatened preterm labor before 32 weeks of gestation are, after transfer to a perinatal center, treated with tocolytics and corticosteroids. Many of these women are treated unnecessaril...

    Authors: Jolande Y Vis, Femke F Wilms, Martijn A Oudijk, Martina M Porath, Hubertina CJ Scheepers, Kitty WM Bloemenkamp, Annemiek C Bolte, Jérôme Cornette, Jan B Derks, Johannes J Duvekot, Jim van Eyck, Anneke Kwee, Brent C Opmeer, Maria G van Pampus, Fred K Lotgering, Sicco A Scherjon…
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:38
  11. The evidence of an association between neighbourhood deprivation and overweight is established for different populations. However no previous studies on neighbourhood variations in obesity in pregnant women we...

    Authors: Eva Sellström, Göran Arnoldsson, Marie Alricsson and Anders Hjern
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:37
  12. Caesarean section is one of the most commonly performed major operations in women throughout the world. Rates are escalating, with studies from the United States of America, the United Kingdom, China and the R...

    Authors: Deirdre J Murphy, Michael Carey, Alan A Montgomery and Sharon R Sheehan
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:36
  13. A sense of security is important for experiences of parenthood in the early postpartum period. The objectives of this study were to evaluate two models of postnatal care using a questionnaire incorporating the...

    Authors: Linda J Kvist and Eva K Persson
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:35
  14. Deficiencies of iron and folic acid during pregnancy can lead to adverse outcomes for the fetus, thus supplements are recommended. Adherence to current tablet-based supplements is documented to be poor. Recent...

    Authors: Brenda Hartman-Craven, Anna Christofides, Deborah L O'Connor and Stanley Zlotkin
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:33
  15. Women experiencing decreased fetal movements (DFM) are at increased risk of adverse outcomes, including stillbirth. Fourteen delivery units in Norway registered all cases of DFM in a population-based quality a...

    Authors: Julie Victoria Holm Tveit, Eli Saastad, Babill Stray-Pedersen, Per E Børdahl, Vicki Flenady, Ruth Fretts and J Frederik Frøen
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:32

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2010 10:49

  16. The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care a...

    Authors: Eleonora RO Ribeiro, Alzira Maria DN Guimarães, Heloísa Bettiol, Danilo DF Lima, Maria Luiza D Almeida, Luiz de Souza, Antônio Augusto M Silva and Ricardo Q Gurgel
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:31
  17. Previous studies on change in maternal age composition in Tanzania do not indicate its impact on adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to establish temporal changes in maternal age composition and their impact...

    Authors: Projestine S Muganyizi and Hussein L Kidanto
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:30
  18. Post partum haemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal death worldwide. It also contributes to maternal morbidity as women may require a hysterectomy to control bleeding, or may require a blood transfusion, wh...

    Authors: Pili Ferrer, Ian Roberts, Emma Sydenham, Karen Blackhall and Haleema Shakur
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:29
  19. Intermittent preventive treatment for prevention of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is a key component of malaria control strategy in Nigeria and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is the drug of choice. Despite the e...

    Authors: Stella O Akinleye, Catherine O Falade and Ikeoluwapo O Ajayi
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:28
  20. Women with type 1 diabetes are at high risk of complications during both pregnancy and childbirth. Stringent monitoring of blood sugar is required in order to improve the chance of giving birth to a healthy ch...

    Authors: Marie Berg and Carina Sparud-Lundin
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:27
  21. Studies that contributed to the epidemiology of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy have reported conflicting findings, and often failed to account for all possible co-variables necessary to evaluate the multidim...

    Authors: Anaïs Lacasse, Evelyne Rey, Ema Ferreira, Caroline Morin and Anick Bérard
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:26
  22. Earlier studies indicate that midwife-led birth settings are associated with modest benefits, including reduced medical interventions and increased maternal satisfaction. The generalizability of these studies ...

    Authors: Britt Ingeborg Eide, Anne Britt Vika Nilsen and Svein Rasmussen
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:25
  23. Audit and classification of stillbirths is an essential part of clinical practice and a crucial step towards stillbirth prevention. Due to the limitations of the ICD system and lack of an international approac...

    Authors: Vicki Flenady, J Frederik Frøen, Halit Pinar, Rozbeh Torabi, Eli Saastad, Grace Guyon, Laurie Russell, Adrian Charles, Catherine Harrison, Lawrence Chauke, Robert Pattinson, Rachel Koshy, Safiah Bahrin, Glenn Gardener, Katie Day, Karin Petersson…
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:24
  24. A carefully classified dataset of perinatal mortality will retain the most significant information on the causes of death. Such information is needed for health care policy development, surveillance and intern...

    Authors: J Frederik Frøen, Halit Pinar, Vicki Flenady, Safiah Bahrin, Adrian Charles, Lawrence Chauke, Katie Day, Charles W Duke, Fabio Facchinetti, Ruth C Fretts, Glenn Gardener, Kristen Gilshenan, Sanne J Gordijn, Adrienne Gordon, Grace Guyon, Catherine Harrison…
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:22
  25. Natural disaster is often a cause of psychopathology, and women are vulnerable to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Depression is also common after a woman gives birth. However, no research...

    Authors: Emily W Harville, Xu Xiong, Gabriella Pridjian, Karen Elkind-Hirsch and Pierre Buekens
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:21
  26. Obstetric cholestasis (OC) is a serious problem in pregnancy. It affects about 4500 women per year in the UK. Affected women develop itching and occasionally jaundice. More importantly, the condition is associ...

    Authors: Vinita Gurung, Catherine Williamson, Lucy Chappell, Jenny Chambers, Annette Briley, Fiona Broughton Pipkin and Jim Thornton
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:19
  27. Caesarean section is a commonly performed operation on women that is globally increasing in prevalence each year. There is a large variation in the rates of caesarean, both in high and low income countries, as...

    Authors: Mario R Festin, Malinee Laopaiboon, Porjai Pattanittum, Melissa R Ewens, David J Henderson-Smart and Caroline A Crowther
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:17
  28. Although a number of antenatal and intrapartum interventions have shown some evidence of impact on stillbirth incidence, much confusion surrounds ideal strategies for delivering these interventions within heal...

    Authors: Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Gary L Darmstadt, Rachel A Haws, Mohammad Yawar Yakoob and Joy E Lawn
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9(Suppl 1):S7

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 9 Supplement 1

  29. Approximately one million stillbirths occur annually during labour; most of these stillbirths occur in low and middle-income countries and are associated with absent, inadequate, or delayed obstetric care. The...

    Authors: Gary L Darmstadt, Mohammad Yawar Yakoob, Rachel A Haws, Esme V Menezes, Tanya Soomro and Zulfiqar A Bhutta
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9(Suppl 1):S6

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 9 Supplement 1

  30. Screening and monitoring in pregnancy are strategies used by healthcare providers to identify high-risk pregnancies so that they can provide more targeted and appropriate treatment and follow-up care, and to m...

    Authors: Rachel A Haws, Mohammad Yawar Yakoob, Tanya Soomro, Esme V Menezes, Gary L Darmstadt and Zulfiqar A Bhutta
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9(Suppl 1):S5

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 9 Supplement 1

  31. An estimated two-thirds of the world's 3.2 million stillbirths occur antenatally, prior to labour, and are often overlooked in policy and programs. Poorly recognised, untreated or inadequately treated maternal...

    Authors: Esme V Menezes, Mohammad Yawar Yakoob, Tanya Soomro, Rachel A Haws, Gary L Darmstadt and Zulfiqar A Bhutta
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9(Suppl 1):S4

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 9 Supplement 1

  32. The vast majority of global stillbirths occur in low- and middle-income countries, and in many settings, the majority of stillbirths occur antenatally, prior to the onset of labour. Poor nutritional status, la...

    Authors: Mohammad Yawar Yakoob, Esme V Menezes, Tanya Soomro, Rachel A Haws, Gary L Darmstadt and Zulfiqar A Bhutta
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9(Suppl 1):S3

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 9 Supplement 1

  33. More than 3.2 million stillbirths occur globally each year, yet stillbirths are largely invisible in global data tracking, policy dialogue and programme implementation. This mismatch of burden to action is due...

    Authors: Joy E Lawn, Mohammad Yawar Yakoob, Rachel A Haws, Tanya Soomro, Gary L Darmstadt and Zulfiqar A Bhutta
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9(Suppl 1):S2

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 9 Supplement 1

  34. One of the major success stories of modern obstetrics in high-income countries in the last 5 decades is the reduction of stillbirths from rates as high as 50 per 1000 births to about 5 per 1000 births today. F...

    Authors: Robert L Goldenberg, Elizabeth M McClure and José M Belizán
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9(Suppl 1):S1

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 9 Supplement 1

  35. The caesarean section rate continues to rise globally. A caesarean section is inarguably the preferred method of delivery when there is good evidence that a vaginal delivery may unduly risk the health of a wom...

    Authors: Wendy Sword, Susan Watt, Paul Krueger, Lehana Thabane, Christine Kurtz Landy, Dan Farine and Marilyn Swinton
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:16
  36. The Magpie Trial, a randomised trial comparing magnesium sulphate with placebo for women with pre-eclampsia. This paper describes methods used for follow up in the UK, and presents additional data collected.

    Authors: Rebecca MD Smyth, Patsy Spark, Nina Armstrong and Lelia Duley
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:15
  37. Apgar score is used for rapid assessment of newborns. Low five-minute Apgar score has been associated with increased risk of severe neurologic outcome, but data on milder outcomes, particularly in the long ter...

    Authors: Vera Ehrenstein, Lars Pedersen, Miriam Grijota, Gunnar Lauge Nielsen, Kenneth J Rothman and Henrik Toft Sørensen
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:14
  38. Criteria-based audits have been used to improve clinical management in developed countries, but have only recently been introduced in the developing world. This study discusses the introduction of a criteria-b...

    Authors: Hussein Lesio Kidanto, Ingrid Mogren, Siriel N Massawe, Gunilla Lindmark and Lennarth Nystrom
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:13
  39. Awareness of the danger signs of obstetric complications is the essential first step in accepting appropriate and timely referral to obstetric and newborn care. The objectives of this study were to assess wome...

    Authors: Andrea B Pembe, David P Urassa, Anders Carlstedt, Gunilla Lindmark, Lennarth Nyström and Elisabeth Darj
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:12
  40. The primary objective of this study was to determine if elevated antiphospholipid antibody titers were correlated with the presence of preeclampsia/eclampsia, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), placental insu...

    Authors: James Nodler, Surjit R Moolamalla, Elizabeth M Ledger, Bahij S Nuwayhid and Zuber D Mulla
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:11
  41. Although antenatal care coverage in Tanzania is high, worrying gaps exist in terms of its quality and ability to prevent, diagnose or treat complications. Moreover, much less is known about the utilisation of ...

    Authors: Mwifadhi Mrisho, Brigit Obrist, Joanna Armstrong Schellenberg, Rachel A Haws, Adiel K Mushi, Hassan Mshinda, Marcel Tanner and David Schellenberg
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:10
  42. To assess the acceptability of intrapartum HIV testing and determine the prevalence of HIV among labouring women with unknown HIV status in Cameroon.

    Authors: Eugene J Kongnyuy, Enow R Mbu, Francois X Mbopi-Keou, Nelson Fomulu, Philip N Nana, Pierre M Tebeu, Rebecca N Tonye and Robert JI Leke
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:9
  43. The HELLP syndrome is a serious complication in pregnancy characterized by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count occurring in 0.5 to 0.9% of all pregnancies and in 10–20% of cases with seve...

    Authors: Kjell Haram, Einar Svendsen and Ulrich Abildgaard
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:8
  44. Maternal mortality is too rare in high income countries to be used as a marker of the quality of maternity care. Consequently severe maternal morbidity has been suggested as a better indicator. Using the mater...

    Authors: Christine L Roberts, Jane B Ford, Charles S Algert, Jane C Bell, Judy M Simpson and Jonathan M Morris
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:7
  45. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, as a consequence of preterm birth, is a major cause of early mortality and morbidity during infancy and childhood. Survivors of preterm birth continue to remain at consi...

    Authors: Jodie M Dodd, Caroline A Crowther, Andrew J McPhee, Vicki Flenady and Jeffrey S Robinson
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:6
  46. It is unclear whether the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia are due to poor fetal growth or short pregnancy duration. Also, it is not known whether the traditional focus on preventing low birth weig...

    Authors: Kuryan George, Jasmin Prasad, Daisy Singh, Shanthidani Minz, David S Albert, Jayaprakash Muliyil, K S Joseph, Jyothi Jayaraman and Michael S Kramer
    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:5

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