Bonari L, Pinto N, Einarson A, Steinereir M, Koren G. Perinatal risks of untreated depression during pregnancy. Can J Psychiatr. 2004;49(11):726–35.
Senturk V, Hanlon C, Medihin G, Dewey M, Araya M, Alem A, et al. Impact of Perinatal somatic and common mental disorder symptoms on functioning on Ethiopian women: the P-MaMiE population based cohort study. J Affect Disord. 2012;136:340–9.
WHO. Depression and other common mental disorders: global health estimates. Geneva: WHO; 2017.
Noel P, Williams J, Unutzer J, Worchel J, Lee S, Cornell J, et al. Depression and comorbid illness in elderly primary care patients: impact on multiple domains of health status and well-being. Ann Fam Med. 2004;2(6):555–62.
DiMatteo R, Lepper H, Croghan T. Depression is a risk factor for noncompliance with medical treatment meta-analysis of the effects of anxiety and depression on patient adherence. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:2101–7.
Katon W. Epidemiology and treatment of depression in patients with chronic medical illness. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2011;13(1):7–23.
Beekman A, Deeg D, Braam A, Tilburg W. Consequences of major and minor depression in later life : a study of disability, well-being and service utilization. Psychol Med. 1997;27:1397–409.
Hanlon C, Whitley R. Wondimagegn D, Alem a, Prince M. Between life and death: exploring the socio-cultural aspect of antenatal mental distress in rural Ethiopia. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2010;13(5):385–93.
Carney R, Freedlanda K, Millerb G, Jaffec A. Depression as a risk factor for cardiac mortality and morbidity a review of potential mechanisms. J Psychosom Res. 2002;53:897–902.
Andersson L, Sundstrom-Poromaa I, Wulff M, Astrom M, Bixo M. Implications of antenatal depression and anxiety for obstetric outcome. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;104(3):467–76.
Dayan J, Creveuil C, Herlicoviez M, Herbel C, Baranger E, Savoye C, et al. Role of anxiety and depression in the onset of spontaneous preterm labor. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;155(4):293–301.
Grigoriadis S, VanderPorten E, Mamisashvili L, Tomlinson G, Dennis C. Et a. The impact of maternal depression during pregnancy on perinatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013;74(4):321–41.
Grote N, Bridge J, Gavin A, Melville J, Iyengar S, Katon W. A meta-analysis of depression during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67(10):1012–24.
Hanlon C, Medihin G, Alem A, Tesfaye F, Lakew Z, Worku B. Impact of antenatal common mental disorders upon perinatal outcomes in Ethiopia: the P-MaMiE population-based cohort study. Trop Med Int Health. 2008;14(2):156–66.
Rahman A, Bunn J, Lovel H, Creed F. Association between antenatal depression and low birthweight in a developing country. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2007;115:481–6.
Stein A, Pearson R, Goodman S, Rapa E, Rahman A, McCallum M, et al. Effects of perinatal mental disorders on the fetus and child. Lancet. 2014;384:1800–19.
Fisher J, Tran T, La B, Kriitma K, Rossenthal D, Tran T. Common perinatal mental disorders in northern Viet Nam: community prevalence and health care use. Bull World Health Organ. 2010;88:737–45.
Bindt C, Appiah-Poku J, Te Bonle M, Schoppen S, Feldt T, Barkmann C, et al. Antepartum depression and anxiety associated with disability in African women: cross-sectional results from the CDS study in Ghana and cote d'Ivoire. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):48396.
Dibaba Y, Fantahun M, Hindin M. The association of unwanted pregnancy and social support with depressive symptoms in pregnancy: evidence from rural southwestern Ethiopia. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013;13:135.
Shakya R, Situala S, Shyangwa P. Depression during pregnancy in a tertiary care center of eastern Nepal. J Nepal Med Assoc. 2008;47(171):128–31.
Medihin G, Hanlon C, Dewey M, Alem A, Tesfaye F, Lakew Z, et al. The effect of maternal common mental disorders on infant undernutrition in Butajira, Ethiopa: P-MaMiE study. BMC Psychiatry. 2010;10:32.
Weobong B, Asbroek A, Soremekun S, Manu A, Owusu-Agyei S, Prince M, et al. Association of antenatal depression with adverse consequences for the mother and newborn in rural Ghana: findings from the don population-based cohort study. PLoS One. 2014;9(12):e116333.
Guo N, Bindt C, Te Bonle M, Appiah-Poku J, Koffi M, Posdzich S, et al. Association of antepartum and postpartum depression in Ghanaian and Ivorian women with febrile illness in their offspring: a prospective birth cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178(9):1394–402.
Anselmi L, Barros F, Minten G, Gigante D, Horta B, Victora C. Prevalence and early deteminants of common mental disorders in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, South Brazil. Rev Saude Publica. 2008;42(12):26–33.
Hartley M, Tomlinson M, Greco E, Comulada S, Stewart J, Roux J, et al. Depressed mood in pregnancy: prevalence and correlates in two Cape town peri-urban settlements. Reprod Health. 2011;8:9.
Fisher J, Mello M, Patel V, Rahman A, Tran T, Holtn S, et al. Prevalence and determinants of common perinatal mentala disorders in low income and lower middle income countries: a systematic review. Bull World Health Organ. 2012;90:139–49.
Lancaster C, Gold K, Flynn H, Yoo H, Marcus S, Davis M. Risk factors for depressive symptoms during pregnancy: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;202(1):5–14.
Say L, Chou D, Gemmill A, Tuncalp O, Moller A, Daniels J, et al. Global causes of maternal death: a WHO systematic analysis. Lancet Global Health. 2014;2(6):323–33.
WHO. Trends in maternal mortality: 1990 to 2015. Geneva: The Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-Agency Group; 2015.
Ahmed F, Moussa K, Petterson K, Asamoah B. Assessing knowledge, attitude, and practice of emergency contraception: a cross- sectional study among Ethiopian undergraduate female students. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:110.
Alemayehu M, Belachew T, T T. Factors associated with utilization of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods among married women of reproductive age in Mekelle town, Tigray region, north Ethiopia. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2012;12:6.
Mersha A, Jira C, Demessie S. Community based study on maternal mortality in Jimma town, south western Ethiopia. Indian J Public Health. 1996;40(2):30–4.
Khan K, Wojdyla D, Say L, Gülmezoglu M, Van L. WHO analysis of causes of maternal death: a systematic review. Lancet. 2006;367:1066–74.
Amano A, Gebeyehu A, Birhanu Z. Institutional delivery service utilization in Munisa Woreda, south East Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2012;12:105.
Costello A, Azad K, Barnett S. An alternative strategy to reduce maternal mortality. Lancet. 2006;368:1477–9.
Worku A, Fantahun M. Factors affecting utilization of skilled maternal care in Northwest Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis. BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2013;13:20.
Abebe F. Factors associated with home delivery in Bahirdar, Ethiopia: a case control study. BMC Res Notes. 2012;5:653.
Abera M, G/mariam A, Belachew T. Predictors of safe deliery serice utilizion in Arsi zone, south-East Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci 2011;21:95-106.
Teferra A, Alemu F, Woldeyohannes S. Institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among mothers who gave birth in the last 12 months in Sekela District, north west of Ethiopia: a community - based cross sectional study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2012;12:74.
Worku A, Yalew A, Afework M. Maternal complications and women’s behavior in seeking care from skilled providers in north gondar, Ethiopia. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e60171.
WHO. Trends in maternal mortality: 1990 to 2010. Geneva: WHO; 2012.
Regassa N. Antenatal and postnatal care service utilization in southern Ethiopia: a population-based study. Afr Health Sci. 2011;11(3):390–7.
Mengesha Z, Biks G, Ayele T, Tessema G, Koye D. Determinants of skilled attendance for delivery in northwest Ethiopia: a community based nested case control study. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:130.
Mekonnen M, Yalew K, Umer J, Melese M. Determinants of delivery practices among afar pastoralists of Ethiopia. Pan Afr Med J. 2012;13:17.
Mekonnon Y, Mekonne A. Factors influencing the use of maternal healthcare services in Ethiopia. J Health Popul Nutr. 2003;21(4):374–82.
Fikre A, Demissie M. Prevalence of institutional delivery and associated factors in Dodota Woreda (district), Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. Reprod Health. 2012;9:33.
Tsegay Y, Gebrehiwot T, Goicolea I, Edin K, Lemma H, Sebastian MS. Determinants of antenatal and delivery care utilization in Tigray region, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. Int J Equity Health. 2013 May 14;12(1):30.
Aktar S. Healthcare seeking behavior for safe motherhood: findings from rural Bangladesh. Bangladesh e-J Sociol. 2012;9(2):57–70.
Woldemichael G. Women's autonomy and maternal health seeking behvior in Ethiopia. Matern Child Health J. 2010;14(6):988–98.
Kabakyenga J, Östergren P, Turyakira E, Pettersson K. Knowledge of obstetric danger signs and birth preparedness practices among women in rural Uganda. Reprod Health. 2011;8:33.
Mekonnen Y. Patterns of maternity care service utilization in southern Ethiopia: evidence from a community and family survey. Ethiop J Health Dev. 2003;17(1):27–33.
CSA. Ethiopia demographic and health survey 2011. Addis Ababa: Central Statistical Authority; 2011.
Calderon J, Flores P, Babul M, Aguirre JM, Slachevsky A, Padilla O, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus impairs memory cognitive tests not affected by depression. Lupus. 2014;23(10):1042–53.
Baron E, Hanlon C, Mall S, Honikman S, Breuer E, Kathree T, et al. Mental health in primary care in five low and middle income countries: a situtational analysis. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016;16(53):1293–316.
CDC. Advanced management and analysis of data using EpiInfo for windows. 2000.
Bitew T, Hanlon C, Kebede E, Medihn G, Fekadu A. Antenatal depressive symptoms and maternal health care utilisation: a population-based study of pregnant women in Ethiopia. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016;16:301.
Von Elm E, Altman D, Egger M, Pocock S, Gøtzsche P, Vandenbroucke J. The strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. Epidemiology. 2007;18(6):800–4.
Kroenke K, Spitzer R, Wiliams J. Validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med. 2001;16:606–13.
Manea L, Gilbody S, McMillan D. Optimal cut-off score for diagnosing depression with the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9): a meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2012;184(3):191–6.
Hanlon C, Medhin G, Selamu M, Breuer E, Worku B, Hailemariam H, et al. Validity of brief screening questionnaires to detect depression in primary care in Ethiopia. J Affect Disord. 2015;186:32–9.
Rabin R, Jennings J, Campbell J, Bair-Merritt M. Intimate partner violence screening tools. Am J Prev Med. 2009;36(5):439–45.
Zink T, Levin L, Putnam F, Beckstrom A. Accuracy of five domestic violence screening questions with nongraphic language. Clin Pediatr. 2007;46(2):127–34.
Boen H. Characteristics of senior centre users – and the impact of a group programme on social support and late-life depression. Norsk Epidemiologi. 2012;22(2):261–9.
Fekadu A, Medhin G, Selamu M, Hailemariam M, Alem A, Giorgis T, et al. Population level mental distress in rural Ethiopia. BMC Psychiatry. 2014;14:194.
JHPIEGO. Monitoring birth preparedness and complication readiness tools and indicators for maternal and newborn health. Maternal and Neonatal Health. 2004. http://reprolineplus.org/resources/monitoring-birth-preparedness-and-complication-readiness-tools-and-indicators-maternal-and (184.108.40.206). Accessed 26 June 2017.
Fotso J, Mukiira C. Perceived quality of and access to care among poor urban women in Kenya and their utilization of delivery care: harnessing the potential of private clinics? Health Policy Plan. 2011:1–11.
Fewtrell M, Kennedy K, Singhal A, Martin R, Ness A, Hadders-Algra M, et al. How much loss to follow up is acceptable in long terp randomized controlled trials and prospective studies. Arch Dis Child. 2008;93(6):458–61.
Kristman V, Manno M, Cotte P. Loss to follow-up in cohort studies: how much is too much? Eur J Epidemiol. 2004;19:751–60.
Gelaye B, Williams M, Lemma S, Deyessa N, Bahretibeb Y, Shibre T, et al. Validity of the patient health questionnaire-9 for depression screening and diagnosis in East Africa. Psychiatry Res. 2013;
Hanlon C, Medihin G, Selamu M, Breuer E, Worku B, Hailemariam M, et al. Validity of brief screening questionaire to detect depression in primary care in Ethiopia. J Affect Disord. 2015;186:32–9.
El-Saharty S, Kebede S, Olango P, Siadat B. Ethiopia: Improving health service delivery. Health, Nutrition, Population Discussion Papeer. 2009. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/HEALTHNUTRITIONANDPOPULATION/Resources/281627-1095698140167/EthiopiaHealthSystemDelivery.pdf. Accessed 26 June 2017.
Daniel O, Desalegn S. Institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among child bearing age women in Goba woreda. Ethiopia J Gynecol Obstet. 2014;2(4):63–70.
Gedefaw A, Muluken A, Tesfaye S. Factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization among mothers in Bahir Dar City administration, Amhara region: a community based cross sectional study. Reprod Health. 2014;11:22.
Hailemichael F, Woldie M, Tafese F. Predictors of institutional delivery in Sodo town, southern Ethiopia. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2013;5(1):544.
Jablensky A, Morgan V, Zubrick S, Bower C, Yellachich L. Pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal complications in a population cohort of women with schizophrenia and major affective disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162(1):79–91.
Lutsiv O, McKinney B, Foster G, Taylor V, Pullenayegum E, McDonald S. Pregnancy complications associated with the co-prevalence of excess maternal weight and depression. Int J Obes. 2015;39:1710–6.
Thornton D, Guendelman S, Hosang N. Obstetric complications in women with diagnosed mental illness: the relative success of California’s county mental health system. Health Serv Res. 2010;45:1.
Qiao Y, Wang J, Li J, Wang J. Effects of depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy on pregnant, obstetric and neonatal outcomes: a follow-up study. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2012;32:237–40.
Qiu C, Sanchez S, Lam N, Garcia P, Williams M. Associations of depression and depressive symptoms with preeclampsia: results from a Peruvian case-control study. BMC Womens Health. 2007;7:15.
Kurki T, Hiilesmaa V, Raitasalo R, Mattila H, Ylikorkala O. Depression and anxiety in early pregnancy and risk for preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;95:487–90.
Chrousos G, Torpy D, P G. Interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the female reproductive system: clinical implications. Ann of Intern Med. 1998;129:229–40.
Sandman C, Wadhwa P, Dunkel-Schetter C, Chicz-DeMet A, Belman J, ao PM. Psychobiological influences of stress and HPA regulation on the human fetus and infant birth outcomes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994;739:198–210.
Smith R, Cubis J, Brinsmead M, Lewin T, Singh B, ao OP. Mood changes, obstetric experience and alterations in plasma cortisol, beta-endorphin and corticotrophin releasing hormone during pregnancy and the puerperium. J Psychosom Res. 1990;34(1):53–69.
Katon J, Russo J, Gavin A, Melville J, Katon W. Diabetes and depression in pregnancy: Is there an association?. Journal of Women's Health. 2011;20(7):983–9.
Benute G, Nomura R, Siracuza R, Fraguas R Jr, Lucia M, Zugaib M. Depression during pregnancy in women with a medical disorder: risk factors and perinatal outcomes. Clinics. 2010;65(11):1127–31.
Zeleke B, Ayele T, Woldetsadik M, Bisetegn T, Adane A. Depression among women with obstetric fistula, and pelvic organ prolapse in northwest Ethiopia. BMC Psychiatry. 2013;13:236.
Stewart R, Umar E, Gleadow-Ware S, Creed F, Bristow K. Perinatal distress and depression in Malawi: an exploratory qualitative study of stressors, supports and symptoms. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2015;18:177–85.
Geneti K. Statistical analysis of determinants of maternal institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia. Am J Theoretical App Stat. 2015;4(3):71–7.
Fekadu M, Regassa N. Skilled delivery care service utilization in Ethiopia: analysis of rural-urban differentials based on national demographic and health survey (DHS) data. Afr Health Sci. 2014;14(4):974–84.