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Table 1 Characteristics of participants (N = 1251)

From: Antenatal depressive symptoms and utilisation of delivery and postnatal care: a prospective study in rural Ethiopia

Characteristics Baseline (N = 1311)
N (%)
Followed Up (N = 1251)
N (%)
chi2 (p-value)
PHQ Status PHQ < 5 924 (70.5) 892 (71.3) 0.2098 (p = 0.647
PHQ ≥ 5 387 (29.5) 359 (28.7)
Marital Status Married 1293 (98.6) 1235 (98.7)  
single, divorced or widowed 18 (1.4) 16 (1.3) 0.0432 (p = 0.835)
Residence Urban 103 (7.9) 101 (8.1) 0.0411 (p = 0.839)
Rural 1208 (92.1) 1150 (91.9)  
Household Income* High 459 (35.0) 438 (35.0)  
Medium 423 (32.3) 397 (31.7) 0.1109 (p = 0.946)
Low 429 (32.7) 416 (33.3)  
Mother’s Education Non-literate 878 (67.0) 844 67.5)  
Primary Schooling (Grade 1–8) 380 (29.0) 357 (28.5) 0.0714 (p = 0.965)
Grade 9 & more 53 (4.0) 50 (4.0)  
Experience of Intimate Partner Violence None 573 (43.7) 552 (44.1) 0.0453 (p = 0.831)
One or more in life time 738 (56.3) 699(55.9)
Pregnancy Intention Wanted 734 (56.0) 701 (56.0)  
Mistimed (wanted but not now) 102 (7.8) 93 (7.4) 0.1168 (p = 0.943)
Unwanted 475 (36.2) 457 (37.3)  
Self-reported Pregnancy Complications None 655 (50.1) 632 (50.5) 0.0594 (p = 0.808)
One or more 656 (49.9) 619 (49.5)  
Chronic Illness None 871 (66.4) 824 (66.4) 0.0001(0 = 0.994)
One or more 440 (33.6) 416 (34.6)
Previous institutional delivery Yes 160 (12.2) 152 (12.2) 0.0018 (p = 0.967)
No/primiparous 1151 (87.8) 1099 (87.8)  
Delivery Care Utilisation Home delivery -- 468 (37.4) --
Institutional delivery -- 783 (62.6) --
Type of Delivery Normal vaginal -- 1115 (89.1) --
Assisted or operative -- 136 (10.7) --
One or more Postnatal care Visits: No -- 568 (45.8) --
Yes -- 672 (54.2) --
Reason for use of inst. delivery Planned -- 612 (78.3) --
Unplanned -- 171 (21.7) --
  1. Single Marital Status = unmarried, widowed, divorced
  2. *Income was categorized into tertiles as low, medium and high
  3. CS Caesarian Section