World bank data catalogue. [http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators]
Norman PP, Gregory IP, Dorling DD, Baker AA: Geographical trends in infant mortality: England and Wales, 1970-2006. Health Statistics Quarterly. 2008, 40: 18-29.
Arntzen A, Andersen AMN: Social determinants for infant mortality in the Nordic countries, 1980 - 2001. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 2004, 32 (5): 381-389. 10.1080/14034940410029450.
Luo Z-C, Wilkins R, Kramer MS, for the F Infant Health Study Group of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance S: Effect of neighbourhood income and maternal education on birth outcomes: a population-based study. CMAJ. 2006, 174 (10): 1415-1420.
Kurinczuk JJ, Hollowell J, Brocklehurst P, Gray G: Inequalities in infant mortality project briefing paper 1. Infant mortality: overview and context. 2009, Oxford: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, [https://www.npeu.ox.ac.uk/files/downloads/infant-mortality/Infant-Mortality-Briefing-Paper-1.pdf]
Callaghan WM, MacDorman MF, Rasmussen SA, Qin C, Lackritz EM: The Contribution of Preterm Birth to Infant Mortality Rates in the United States. Pediatrics. 2006, 118 (4): 1566-1573. 10.1542/peds.2006-0860.
Rosano A, Botto LD, Botting B, Mastroiacovo P: Infant mortality and congenital anomalies from 1950 to 1994: an international perspective. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2000, 54 (9): 660-666. 10.1136/jech.54.9.660.
Gray R, Bonellie SR, Chalmers J, Greer I, Jarvis S, Williams C: Social inequalities in preterm birth in Scotland 1980-2003: findings from an area-based measure of deprivation. BJOG. 2008, 115 (1): 82-90.
Vrijheid M, Dolk H, Stone D, Abramsky L, Alberman E, Scott JES: Socioeconomic inequalities in risk of congenital anomaly. Arch Dis Child. 2000, 82 (5): 349-352. 10.1136/adc.82.5.349.
Oakley L, Maconochie N, Doyle P, Dattani N, Moser K: Multivariate analysis of infant death in England and Wales in 2005-06, with focus on socio-economic status and deprivation. Health Statistics Quarterly. 2009, 42 (1): 22-39. 10.1057/hsq.2009.15.
Gray R, Headley J, Oakley L, Kurinczuk JJ, Brocklehurst P, Hollowell J: Inequalities in infant mortality project briefing paper 3. Towards an understanding of variations in infant mortality rates between different ethnic groups in England & Wales. 2009, Oxford: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, [https://www.npeu.ox.ac.uk/files/downloads/infant-mortality/Infant-Mortality-Briefing-Paper-3.pdf]
D'Souza L, Garcia J: Improving services for disadvantaged childbearing women. Child Care Health Dev. 2004, 30 (6): 599-611. 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2004.00471.x.
Little M, Shah R, Vermeulen MJ, Gorman A, Dzendoletas D, Ray JG: Adverse perinatal outcomes associated with homelessness and substance use in pregnancy. CMAJ. 2005, 173 (6): 615-618.
Knight M, Plugge E: Risk factors for adverse perinatal outcomes in imprisoned pregnant women: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2005, 5 (1): 111-10.1186/1471-2458-5-111.
Boy A, Salihu AM: Intimate partner violence and birth outcomes: A systematic review. Int J Fertil Womens Med. 2004, 49 (4): 159-164.
King-Hele S, Webb RT, Mortensen PB, Appleby L, Pickles A, Abel KM: Risk of stillbirth and neonatal death linked with maternal mental illness: a national cohort study. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2009, 94 (2): F105-110. 10.1136/adc.2007.135459.
Ludlow JP, Evans SF, Hulse G: Obstetric and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies associated with illicit substance abuse. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2004, 44 (4): 302-306. 10.1111/j.1479-828X.2004.00221.x.
Hulse GK, Milne E, English DR, Holman CDJ: The relationship between maternal use of heroin and methadone and infant birth weight. Addiction. 1997, 92 (11): 1571-1579. 10.1111/j.1360-0443.1997.tb02877.x.
Hollowell J, Allen F, Gray R, Oakley L, Kurinczuk JJ, Brocklehurst P: Inequalities in infant Mortality Project Evidence Map report 1. Interventions targeting infant mortality: a user's guide to the systematic review evidence. 2009, Oxford: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, [https://www.npeu.ox.ac.uk/files/downloads/infant-mortality/Infant-Mortality-User-Guide.pdf]
Villar J, Bergsjo P: Scientific basis for the content of routine antenatal care I. Philosophy, recent studies, and power to eliminate or alleviate adverse maternal outcomes. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 1997, 76 (1): 1-14. 10.3109/00016349709047778.
Fink A, Yano EM, Goya D: Prenatal programs: what the literature reveals. Obstet Gynecol. 1992, 80 (5): 867-872.
Olds DL, Henderson CR, Tatelbaum R, Chamberlin R: Improving the Delivery of Prenatal Care and Outcomes of Pregnancy: A Randomized Trial of Nurse Home Visitation. Pediatrics. 1986, 77 (1): 16-28.
Buescher PA, Roth MS, Williams D, Goforth CM: An evaluation of the impact of maternity care coordination on Medicaid birth outcomes in North Carolina. American Journal of Public Health. 1991, 81 (12): 1625-1629. 10.2105/AJPH.81.12.1625.
Rumbold AR, Cunningham J: A review of the impact of antenatal care for Australian Indigenous women and attempts to strengthen these services. Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2008, 12 (1): 83-100. 10.1007/s10995-007-0216-1.
Dennis C-L, Kingston D: A Systematic Review of Telephone Support for Women During Pregnancy and the Early Postpartum Period. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2008, 37 (3): 301-314. 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2008.00235.x.
Blondel B, Bréart G: Home visits during pregnancy: Consequences on pregnancy outcome, use of health services, and women's situations. Seminars in Perinatology. 1995, 19 (4): 263-271. 10.1016/S0146-0005(05)80040-0.
Hodnett ED: Continuity of caregivers for care during pregnancy and childbirth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000, 1
Waldenstrom U, Turnbull D: A systematic review comparing continuity of midwifery care with standard maternity services. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1998, 105 (11): 1160-1170. 10.1111/j.1471-0528.1998.tb09969.x.
Carroli G, Villar J, Piaggio G, Khan-Neelofur D, Gulmezoglu M, Mugford M, Lumbiganon P, Farnot U, Bersgjo P: WHO systematic review of randomised controlled trials of routine antenatal care. Lancet. 2001, 357 (9268): 1565-1570. 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04723-1.
Khan-Neelofur D, Gulmezoglu M, Villar J: Who should provide routine antenatal care for low-risk women, and how often? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. 1998, 12 (Suppl 2): 7-26. 10.1046/j.1365-3016.12.s2.6.x.
Dowswell T, Carroli G, Duley L, Gates S, Gülmezoglu AM, Khan-Neelofur D, Piaggio Gilda GP: Alternative versus standard packages of antenatal care for low-risk pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010, 10
Lomas J: Using research to inform healthcare managers' and policy makers' questions: from summative to interpretive synthesis. Healthcare Policy. 2005, 1 (1): 55-
Jackson R, Ameratunga S, Broad J, Connor J, Lethaby A, Robb G, Wells S, Glasziou P, Heneghan C: The GATE frame: critical appraisal with pictures. Evid Based Med. 2006, 11 (2): 35-38. 10.1136/ebm.11.2.35.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence: Methods for the development of NICE public health guidance. London. 2009, second
Thomas J: Information systems for conducting systematic reviews: a case study. Sixth International Campbell Colloquium. Los Angeles, 22-24 February. 2006, Poster, [http://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/cms/]
Panaretto KS, Lee HM, Mitchell MR, Larkins SL, Manessis V, Buettner PG, Watson D: Impact of a collaborative shared antenatal care program for urban Indigenous women: a prospective cohort study. Medical Journal of Australia. 2005, 182 (10): 514-519.
Muender MM, Moore ML, Chen GJ, Sevick MA: Cost-benefit of a nursing telephone intervention to reduce preterm and low-birthweight births in an African American clinic population. Prev Med. 2000, 30 (4): 271-276. 10.1006/pmed.2000.0637.
Newschaffer CJ, Cocroft J, Hauck WW, Fanning T, Turner BJ: Improved birth outcomes associated with enhanced Medicaid prenatal care in drug-using women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1998, 91 (6): 885-891. 10.1016/S0029-7844(98)00092-1.
Goldenberg RL, Davis RO, Copper RL, Corliss DK, Andrews JB, Carpenter AH: The Alabama preterm birth prevention project. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1990, 75 (6): 933-939.
Burkett G, Gomez-Marin O, Yasin SY, Martinez M: Prenatal care in cocaine-exposed pregnancies. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1998, 92 (2): 193-200. 10.1016/S0029-7844(98)00202-6.
Dubois S, Coulombe C, Pencharz P, Pinsonneault O, Duquette MP: Ability of the Higgins Nutrition Intervention Program to improve adolescent pregnancy outcome. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1997, 97 (8): 871-878. 10.1016/S0002-8223(97)00212-5.
Kafatos AG, Tsitoura S, Pantelakis SN, Doxiadis SA: Maternal and infant health education in a rural Greek community. Hygie. 1991, 10 (1): 32-37.
Klerman LV, Ramey SL, Goldenberg RL, Marbury S, Hou J, Cliver SP: A randomized trial of augmented prenatal care for multiple-risk, Medicaid-eligible African American women. American Journal of Public Health. 2001, 91 (1): 105-111.
Miles J, Sugumar K, Macrory F, Sims DG, D'Souza SW: Methadone-exposed newborn infants: Outcome after alterations to a service for mothers and infants. Child: Care, Health and Development. 2007, 33 (2): 206-212. 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2006.00635.x.
Van Winter JT, Harmon MC, Atkinson EJ, Simmons PS, Ogburn PL: Young moms' clinic: A multidisciplinary approach to pregnancy education in teens and in young single women. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. 1997, 10 (1): 28-33.
Bryce RL, Stanley FJ, Garner JB: Randomized controlled trial of antenatal social support to prevent preterm birth. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 1991, 98 (10): 1001-1008. 10.1111/j.1471-0528.1991.tb15338.x.
Conover CJ, Rankin PJ, Sloan FA: Effects of Tennessee Medicaid managed care on obstetrical care and birth outcomes. J Health Polit Policy Law. 2001, 26 (6): 1291-1324. 10.1215/03616878-26-6-1291.
Hobel CJ, Ross MG, Bemis RL, Bragonier JR, Nessim S, Sandhu M, Bear MB, Mori B: The West Los Angeles Preterm Birth Prevention Project. I. Program impact on high-risk women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994, 170 (1 Pt 1): 54-62.
Ickovics JR, Kershaw TS, Westdahl C, Magriples U, Massey Z, Reynolds H, Rising SS: Group prenatal care and perinatal outcomes: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2007, 110 (2 Pt 1): 330-339. 10.1097/01.AOG.0000275284.24298.23.
Ickovics JR, Kershaw TS, Westdahl C, Rising SS, Klima C, Reynolds H, Magriples U: Group prenatal care and preterm birth weight: Results from a matched cohort study at public clinics. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2003, 102 (5): 1051-1057. 10.1016/S0029-7844(03)00765-8.
Kitzman H, Olds DL, Henderson CR, Hanks C, Cole R, Tatelbaum R, McConnochie KM, Sidora K, Luckey DW, Shaver D, et al: Effect of prenatal and infancy home visitation by nurses on pregnancy outcomes, childhood injuries, and repeated childbearing. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1997, 278 (8): 644-652. 10.1001/jama.278.8.644. [http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/278/8/644.abstract]
Moore ML, Meis PJ, Ernest JM, Wells HB, Zaccaro DJ, Terrell T: A randomized trial of nurse intervention to reduce preterm and low birth weight births. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1998, 91 (5 Pt 1): 656-661. 10.1016/S0029-7844(98)00012-X.
Oakley A, Rajan L, Grant A: Social support and pregnancy outcome. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1990, 97 (2): 155-162. 10.1111/j.1471-0528.1990.tb01741.x.
Reece EA, Leguizamon G, Silva J, Whiteman V, Smith D: Intensive interventional maternity care reduces infant morbidity and hospital costs. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2002, 11 (3): 204-210.
Turner BJ, Newschaffer CJ, Cocroft J, Fanning TR, Marcus S, Hauck WW: Improved birth outcomes among HIV-infected women with enhanced medicaid prenatal care. American Journal of Public Health. 2000, 90 (1): 85-91. 10.2105/AJPH.90.1.85.
Joyce T: Impact of augmented prenatal care on birth outcomes of Medicaid recipients in New York City. Journal of Health Economics. 1999, 18 (1): 31-67. 10.1016/S0167-6296(98)00027-7.
Kafatos AG, Vlachonikolis IG, Codrington CA: Nutrition during pregnancy: the effects of an educational intervention program in Greece. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989, 50 (5): 970-979.
Greenhalgh T, Peacock R: Effectiveness and efficiency of search methods in systematic reviews of complex evidence: audit of primary sources. BMJ. 2005, 331 (7524): 1064-1065. 10.1136/bmj.38636.593461.68.
Hueston WJ, Knox MA, Eilers G, Pauwels J, Lonsdorf D: The effectiveness of preterm-birth prevention educational programs for high-risk women: a meta-analysis. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1995, 86: 705-10.1016/0029-7844(95)00202-3.
Hodnett ED, Fredericks S, Weston J: Support during pregnancy for women at increased risk of low birthweight babies. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010, 6
Bull J, McCormick G, Swann C, Mulvihill C: Ante- and post-natal home-visiting programmes: a review of reviews. Evidence briefing. 2004, London: Health Development Agency
Nielsen JN, Gittelsohn JJ, Anliker JJ, O'Brien KK: Interventions to improve diet and weight gain among pregnant adolescents and recommendations for future research. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2006, 106 (11): 1825-1840. 10.1016/j.jada.2006.08.007.
Kramer MS, Kakuma R: Energy and protein intake in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003, 4
Hatem M, Sandall J, Devane D, Soltani H, Gates S: Midwife-led versus other models of care for childbearing women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008, 4
Clarke LL, Miller MK, Vogel WB, Davis KE, Mahan CS: The effectiveness of Florida's "Improved Pregnancy Outcome" program. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 1993, 4 (2): 117-132.
Lenaway D, Koepsell TD, Vaughan T, van Belle G, Shy K, Cruz-Uribe F: Evaluation of a public-private certified nurse-midwife maternity program for indigent women. American Journal of Public Health. 1998, 88 (4): 675-679. 10.2105/AJPH.88.4.675.
Mvula MM, Miller JM: A comparative evaluation of collaborative prenatal care. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1998, 91 (2): 169-173. 10.1016/S0029-7844(97)00649-2.
Collaborative Group on Preterm Birth Prevention: Multicenter randomized, controlled trial of a preterm birth prevention program. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993, 169 (2 Pt 1): 352-366.
Bienstock JL, Ural SH, Blakemore K, Pressman EK: University hospital-based prenatal care decreases the rate of preterm delivery and costs, when compared to managed care. Journal of Maternal-Fetal Medicine. 2001, 10 (2): 127-130.
Edwards CF, Chazotte C, Freda MC, Shah L, Girz B, Damus K, Merkatz IR: Impact of an inner-city, hospital-based preterm prevention program on preterm births in twin gestation. Journal of the Association for Academic Minority Physicians. 1995, 6 (2): 78-81.
Bensussen-Walls W, Saewyc EM: Teen-focused care versus adult-focused care for the high-risk pregnant adolescent: an outcomes evaluation. Public Health Nursing. 2001, 18 (6): 424-435. 10.1046/j.1525-1446.2001.00424.x.
Das S, Dhulkotia JS, Brook J, Amu O: The impact of a dedicated antenatal clinic on the obstetric and neonatal outcomes in adolescent pregnant women. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2007, 27 (5): 464-466. 10.1080/01443610701406042.
Morris DL, Berenson AB, Lawson J, Wiemann CM: Comparison of adolescent pregnancy outcomes by prenatal care source. Journal of Reproductive Medicine for the Obstetrician and Gynecologist. 1993, 38 (5): 375-380.
Perez R, Patience T, Pulous E, Brown G, McEwen A, Asato A, Hume R, Calhoun BC: Use of a focussed teen prenatal clinic at a military teaching hospital: Model for improved outcomes of unmarried mothers. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 1998, 38 (3): 280-283. 10.1111/j.1479-828X.1998.tb03066.x.
Quinlivan JA, Evans SF: Teenage antenatal clinics may reduce the rate of preterm birth: A prospective study. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2004, 111 (6): 571-578. 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2004.00146.x.
Ukil D, Esen UI: Early teenage pregnancy outcome: a comparison between a standard and a dedicated teenage antenatal clinic. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2002, 22 (3): 270-272. 10.1080/01443610220130544.
Grady MA, Bloom KC: Pregnancy outcomes of adolescents enrolled in a CenteringPregnancy program. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2004, 49 (5): 412-420. 10.1016/j.jmwh.2004.05.009. [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1542-2011.2004.tb04435.x/abstract]
Mackerras D: Birthweight changes in the pilot phase of the Strong Women Strong Babies Strong Culture program in the Northern Territory. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 2001, 25 (1): 34-40. 10.1111/j.1467-842X.2001.tb00547.x.
Panaretto KS, Mitchell MR, Anderson L, Larkins SL, Manessis V, Buettner PG, Watson D: Sustainable antenatal care services in an urban Indigenous community: the Townsville experience. The Medical Journal of Australia. 2007, 187 (1): 18-22.
Keeton K, Saunders SE, Koltun D: The effect of the Family Case Management Program on 1996 birth outcomes in Illinois. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2004, 13 (2): 207-215. 10.1089/154099904322966191.
Lane SD, Cibula DA, Milano LP, Shaw M, Bourgeois B, Schweitzer F, Steiner C, Dygert K, DeMott K, Wilson K, et al: Racial and ethnic disparities in infant mortality: risk in social context. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2001, 7 (3): 30-46. [http://journals.lww.com/jphmp/Abstract/2001/07030/Racial_and_Ethnic_Disparities_in_Infant_Mortality_.7.aspx]
Armstrong MA, Gonzales Osejo V, Lieberman L, Carpenter DM, Pantoja PM, Escobar GJ: Perinatal substance abuse intervention in obstetric clinics decreases adverse neonatal outcomes. Journal of Perinatology. 2003, 23 (1): 3-9. 10.1038/sj.jp.7210847.
Sweeney PJ, Schwartz RM, Mattis NG, Vohr B: The effect of integrating substance abuse treatment with prenatal care on birth outcome. Journal of Perinatology. 2000, 20 (4): 219-224. 10.1038/sj.jp.7200357.