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Table 1 Criteria for including studies in the review

From: The effectiveness of antenatal care programmes to reduce infant mortality and preterm birth in socially disadvantaged and vulnerable women in high-income countries: a systematic review

  Inclusion criteria
Study design Experimental or observational effectiveness evaluation, with control or comparator group
Population Socially disadvantaged or vulnerable populations*
  Other specified at risk population: teenagers, obese pregnant women, substance users, alcohol misusers, women who are HIV positive
Intervention Intervention involving the organisation and/or delivery of:
     • comprehensive antenatal care
     • components of antenatal care provided in the context of normal antenatal care
  and/or
     • Stand alone interventions involving the provision of health or social care to pregnant women delivered as an adjunct to normal antenatal care
  Exclusions:
     • stand-alone interventions targeting pregnant women not delivered and/or evaluated in conjunction with standard antenatal care
     • clinical interventions, unless evaluated in the context of a broader package of antenatal care
     • interventions with a focus on labour/birth or the periconceptional period
     • interventions involving only opiate substitution
Comparator Standard antenatal care or a specified alternative model of antenatal care
Outcome    • Preterm birth (or "preterm labour") expressed as the number/proportion of women delivering before 37 weeks gestation (or some other cut-off point <37 weeks)
     • Any measure of neonatal/infant mortality, but excluding perinatal mortality
     • Birth prevalence of congenital anomalies
     • SIDS/SUDI
Type of publication Journal articles reporting primary research in English and non-English language journal articles with an English Language abstract
Geographical area OECD member countries, excluding Mexico and Turkey**
Time period Published 1990 onwards
  1. *Including: women living in deprived areas, disadvantaged minority ethnic/racial groups, women in prison, travellers, homeless women, asylum seekers and refugees, recently arrived migrants/other immigrant groups, victims of abuse, women with mental illness/mental health problems, women with learning disabilities, sex workers.
  2. **High-income countries with low infant mortality.