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Table 2 Characteristics of the included primary studies

From: The effectiveness of antenatal care programmes to reduce infant mortality and preterm birth in socially disadvantaged and vulnerable women in high-income countries: a systematic review

  Number (%) of studies
Year of publication  
1990-1994 8 (22)
1995-1999 9 (25)
2000-2004 15 (42)
2005-2008 (part year) 4 (11)
Country  
USA 26 (72)
Australia 4 (11)
U.K. 4 (11)
Canada 1 (3)
Greece 1 (3)
Study design  
RCT-individually randomized 7 (19)
RCT-cluster randomized 2 (6)
Retrospective cohort study 12 (33)
Prospective cohort study 6 (17)
Cohort study (unspecified) 2 (6)
Mixed retrospective/prospective cohort study 1 (3)
Before and after study 6 (17)
Outcomes reported*  
PTB/preterm labour 32 (89)
Infant mortality 5 (14)
Neonatal mortality 6 (17)
Congenital anomalies 6 (17)
  1. * Not mutually exclusive