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  1. Almost one-third of children under 5 years old in Indonesia suffer from stunting. Stunting can be prevented optimally during pregnancy as the initial phase of the first 1000 days of life. This study aims to de...

    Authors: Tria Astika Endah Permatasari, Fauza Rizqiya, Walliyana Kusumaningati, Inne Indraaryani Suryaalamsah and Zahrofa Hermiwahyoeni

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:180

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Understanding the pregnant women’s perception of continuity of team midwifery care is necessary for introducing and implementing this model of midwife-led care in the Iranian maternity services. This qualitati...

    Authors: Sholeh Shahinfar, Parvin Abedi, Mahin Najafian, Zahra Abbaspoor, Eesa Mohammadi and Narges Alianmoghaddam

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:173

    Content type: Research article

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  3. This study introduced machine learning approaches to predict newborn’s body mass index (BMI) based on ultrasound measures and maternal/delivery information.

    Authors: Kwang-Sig Lee, Ho Yeon Kim, Se Jin Lee, Sung Ok Kwon, Sunghun Na, Han Sung Hwang, Mi Hye Park and Ki Hoon Ahn

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:172

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Psychological stress and coping experienced during pregnancy can have important effects on maternal and infant health, which can also vary by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Therefore, we assessed s...

    Authors: Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, Crystal Lederhos Smith, Erica J. Crespi, Olivia Brooks, Ekaterina Burduli, Samantha Ranjo, Cara L. Carty, Luciana E. Hebert, Sara F. Waters and Maria A. Gartstein

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:171

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Nigeria is experiencing a high level of urbanization and urban poverty. Within Nigeria maternal and child health and family planning outcomes may differ by residence (capital city, urban/non-capital city and r...

    Authors: Kavita Singh, Ilene S. Speizer, Rashida-E Ijdi and Lisa M. Calhoun

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:170

    Content type: Research article

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  6. It is challenging to decrease neonatal mortality in middle-income countries, where perinatal asphyxia is an important cause of death. This study aims to analyze the annual trend of neonatal mortality with peri...

    Authors: Mandira D. Kawakami, Adriana Sanudo, Mônica L. P. Teixeira, Solange Andreoni, Josiane Q. X. de Castro, Bernadette Waldvogel, Ruth Guinsburg and Maria Fernanda de Almeida

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:169

    Content type: Research article

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  7. An unplanned pregnancy may be followed by increased depression and anxiety. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mediating role of partner’s emotional reaction to pregnancy (PERP) on the relationsh...

    Authors: Ashraf Kazemi, Maryam Ghaedrahmati and Gholamreza Kheirabadi

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:168

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The impact of using the Intergrowth (IG) dating formulae in comparison to the commonly used Robinson dating on the evaluation of biometrics and estimated fetal weight (EFW) has not been evaluated.

    Authors: N. Fries, F. Dhombres, M. Massoud, J. J. Stirnemann, R. Bessis, G. Haddad and L. J. Salomon

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:167

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Physical activity is generally considered safe for the pregnant woman as well as for her fetus. In Sweden, pregnant women without contraindications are recommended to engage in physical activity for at least 3...

    Authors: Lina Meander, Maria Lindqvist, Ingrid Mogren, Jonas Sandlund, Christina E. West and Magnus Domellöf

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:166

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Low and mid station vacuum assisted deliveries (VAD) are delicate manual procedures that entail a high degree of subjectivity from the operator and are associated with adverse neonatal outcome. Little has been...

    Authors: Stefhanie Romero, Kristina Pettersson, Khurram Yousaf, Magnus Westgren and Gunilla Ajne

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:165

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Labor pain during childbirth can have devastating effects on the progress of labor, mother, and fetus. Consequently, the management of labor pain is crucial for the well-being of the mother and fetus. Transcut...

    Authors: Anne Njogu, Si Qin, Yujie Chen, Lizhen Hu and Yang Luo

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:164

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD) is a self-inflammatory disease showing macrophage and neutrophil activation by inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-18. Although some cases with the flare of AO...

    Authors: Satoshi Hosoya, Miyuki Sadatsuki, Shinji Izuka, Hiroyuki Yamashita and Hajime Oishi

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:163

    Content type: Case report

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  13. During pregnancy, physiological, psychological, and social changes affect pregnant women’s childcare anxiety and childrearing behavior. However, there are scarce reports on hormonal evaluation related to such ...

    Authors: Nozomi Sonoda, Kaori Takahata, Wataru Tarumi, Kazuyuki Shinohara and Shigeko Horiuchi

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:162

    Content type: Research article

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  14. To achieve the Sustainable Development Goal target 3.1, the World Health Organisation recommends that all pregnant women receive antenatal care (ANC) from skilled providers, utilise the services of a skilled b...

    Authors: Edward Kwabena Ameyaw, Kwamena Sekyi Dickson and Kenneth Setorwu Adde

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:161

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Preeclampsia has the greatest impact on maternal mortality which complicates nearly a tenth of pregnancies worldwide. It is one of the top five maternal mortality causes and responsible for 16 % of direct mate...

    Authors: Maru Mekie, Dagne Addisu, Minale Bezie, Abenezer Melkie, Dejen Getaneh, Wubet Alebachew Bayih and Wubet Taklual

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:160

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in pregnant women contribute about 25% of all infections and are among the most frequent clinical bacterial infections. Pregnancy changes in women that include anatomical, physi...

    Authors: Bahati Johnson, Bawakanya Mayanja Stephen, Ngonzi Joseph, Owaraganise Asiphas, Kayondo Musa and Kabanda Taseera

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:159

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Fetal superior vena cava (SVC) is essentially the single vessel returning blood from the upper body to the heart. With approximately 80-85% of SVC blood flow representing cerebral venous return, its interrogat...

    Authors: Maria Stefopoulou, Lotta Herling, Jonas Johnson, Peter Lindgren, Torvid Kiserud and Ganesh Acharya

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:158

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is transmitted from mother to child which can be prevented via birth dose vaccine combined with three follow up hepatitis B vaccines, hepatitis B immunoglobulins (HBIG), and maternal an...

    Authors: Marieke Bierhoff, Chaisiri Angkurawaranon, Marcus J. Rijken, Kanlaya Sriprawa, Pachinee Kobphan, Francois N. Nosten, Michèle van Vugt, Rose McGready and Angela Devine

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:157

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Rwanda has made great progress in improving reproductive, maternal, and newborn health (RMNH) care; however, barriers to ensuring timely and full RMNH service utilization persist, including women’s limited dec...

    Authors: Kate Doyle, Shamsi Kazimbaya, Ruti Levtov, Joya Banerjee, Myra Betron, Reena Sethi, Marie Rose Kayirangwa, Kristina Vlahovicova, Felix Sayinzoga and Rosemary Morgan

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:156

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Associations between trajectories of systolic blood pressure (SBP) during pregnancy and pregnant outcomes remain unclear and disparate.

    Authors: Haoyue Teng, Yumei Wang, Bing Han, Jieyu Liu, Yingying Cao, Jiaxiang Wang, Xiaoyan Zhu, Jiaojiao Fu, Qi Ling, Chengqi Xiao, Zhongxiao Wan and Jieyun Yin

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:155

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Excess gestational weight gain is common and an important risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Regular weighing can be used to assess and manage weight gain, but NICE guidelines do not recommend routine...

    Authors: Anne E. Ferrey, Nerys M. Astbury, Yvonne Kenworthy, Lucy Mackillop, Kerstin Frie and Susan A. Jebb

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:154

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Our aim was to conduct a post participation survey of respondent experiences with in-home remote patient monitoring via telehealth for blood pressure monitoring of women with postpartum hypertension. We hypoth...

    Authors: Nicole A. Thomas, Anna Drewry, Susan Racine Passmore, Nadia Assad and Kara K. Hoppe

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:153

    Content type: Research

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  23. Low risk pregnancy ending in a vaginal birth is best served and guided by a midwife. Utilizing a midwife in such cases offers many emotional and economic advantages and does not increase the risks for mother o...

    Authors: Ying Liu, Tengteng Li, Nafei Guo, Hui Jiang, Yuehong Li, Chenying Xu and Xiao Yao

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:151

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Focused antenatal care is directed at sustaining maternal health and improving fetal wellbeing to ensure birth of a healthy neonate. Failure to implement focused antenatal care can result in inability to reduc...

    Authors: Asressie Molla Tessema, Abebaw Gebeyehu, Solomon Mekonnen, Kassahun Alemu and Zemene Tigabu

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:150

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Estimation of fetal weight (EFW) by ultrasound is useful in clinical decision-making. Numerous formulas for EFW have been published but have not been validated in pregnancies complicated by preterm premature r...

    Authors: Chelsie Warshafsky, Stefania Ronzoni, Paula Quaglietta, Eran Weiner, Arthur Zaltz, Jon Barrett, Nir Melamed and Amir Aviram

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:149

    Content type: Research

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  26. In the entire population, an aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) is closely associated with chromosomal abnormalities. ARSA with additional ultrasonic findings would increase risk of chromosomal abnormalit...

    Authors: Li-Ping Chen, Yong-Feng Lai, Xiao-Hong Zhong, Jian-Hong You, Jiang-Hua Chen, Jing-Xian Xie, Xiao-Kang Chen, Xiao-Yan Chen and Guo-Rong Lyu

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:148

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Vitamin B12 is an essential micronutrient for neurological function, as it leads to the regeneration of methionine from homocysteine, which is precursor of biologically active molecule S-Adenosyl Methionine (S...

    Authors: Pooja Dhiman, Raji Ramachandran Pillai, Anand Babu Wilson, Nancy Premkumar, Balaji Bharadwaj, Veena P. Ranjan and Soundravally Rajendiran

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:146

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Migrant women may have an increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. This study analyses the occurrence of low birth weight, preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction / fetal growth restriction (IUGR/FG...

    Authors: Juliane Ankert, Tanja Groten, Mathias W. Pletz, Sasmita Mishra, Gregor Seliger, Silvia M. Lobmaier, Clarissa Prazeres da Costa, Vera Seidel, Katharina von Weizsäcker, Alexandra Jablonka, Christian Dopfer and Benjamin T. Schleenvoigt

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:145

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The promotion of vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) is the best method for the reduction of repeated cesarean sections. Nonetheless, the decisional conflict which often results from inadequate patient...

    Authors: Fatemeh Hadizadeh-Talasaz, Faezeh Ghoreyshi, Fatemeh Mohammadzadeh and Roghaieh Rahmani

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:144

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Diagnoses of perinatal opioid use disorder (OUD) continue to rise in the United States. Patients and providers report obstacles to OUD treatment access. Difficulties include legal ambiguity related to Social S...

    Authors: Catherine Leiner, Tamara Cody, Nathan Mullins, Melinda Ramage and Bayla M. M. Ostrach

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:143

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increased risk of perinatal complications for both the women and the fetuses. The association between the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism and GDM has not been tho...

    Authors: Jianqiong Liu, Qiong Dai, Wei Li, Yan Guo, Anna Dai, Yanqing Wang, Mengyao Deng, Zhao Tang, Lu She, Xiaohong Chen and Mei Yang

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:142

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Although infection and inflammation within the genital tract during pregnancy is considered a major risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), there are few studies on association between vaginal microor...

    Authors: Sho Tano, Takuji Ueno, Michinori Mayama, Takuma Yamada, Takehiko Takeda, Kaname Uno, Masato Yoshihara, Mayu Ukai, Teppei Suzuki, Yasuyuki Kishigami and Hidenori Oguchi

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:141

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Inasmuch as induced abortions, miscarriages and stillbirths constitute common adverse pregnancy outcomes contributing to poor maternal health, there is paucity of literature about these in Ghana. We investigat...

    Authors: Bright Opoku Ahinkorah, Abdul-Aziz Seidu, Edward Kwabena Ameyaw, Eugene Budu, Freda Bonsu and Bupe Mwamba

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:140

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Stigma and bias experienced during prenatal care can affect quality of care and, ultimately, the health of pregnant women with obesity and their infants. We sought to 1) better understand the bias and stigma t...

    Authors: Danielle J. Hurst, Nicholas B. Schmuhl, Corrine I. Voils and Kathleen M. Antony

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:139

    Content type: Research

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  35. Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) are increasingly used to improve prematurity-related neonatal outcome. A recognized and common adverse effect from administration of antenatal corticosteroid is maternal hypergl...

    Authors: Jesrine Gek Shan Hong, Peng Chiong Tan, Maherah Kamarudin and Siti Zawiah Omar

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:138

    Content type: Research article

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  36. In many low to middle income countries, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) play various roles (e.g., provision of health education, referral to hospitals, and delivery support) that can potentially improve wo...

    Authors: Yoko Shimpuku, Frida E. Madeni, Kana Shimoda, Satoe Miura and Beatrice Mwilike

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:137

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Autoimmunity increases with age and is often commonly evaluated in women of the reproductive age group. Prevalence of thyroid antibodies is common even in euthyroid pregnant women. We aim to compare the associ...

    Authors: Zareen Kiran, Aisha Sheikh and Najmul Islam

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:136

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Between 2006 and 2013, Peru implemented national programs which drastically decreased rates of maternal and neonatal mortality. However, since 2013, maternal and neonatal mortality in Peru have increased. Addi...

    Authors: Brianna Vargas, Paola Louzado-Feliciano, Nicole Santos, Shannon Fuller, Sopiko Jimsheleishvili, Ángela Quiñones and Holly H. Martin

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:135

    Content type: Research article

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  39. In 2016, the UK Chief Medical Officers revised their guidance on alcohol and advised women to abstain from alcohol if pregnant or planning pregnancy. Midwives have a key role in advising women about alcohol du...

    Authors: Lesley A. Smith, Judith Dyson, Julie Watson and Lisa Schölin

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:134

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with illicit drug use among pregnant women who are socioeconomically vulnerable. While it is assumed that the impact of ACEs on illicit drug use in pregnancy...

    Authors: Cheryl L. Currie and Suzanne C. Tough

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:133

    Content type: Research article

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  41. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Yulong Zhang, Jiacheng Chen, Tingting Liao, Siwen Chen, Jianying Yan and Xiaoqian Lin

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:131

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:724

  42. Ectopic pregnancy is an abnormal condition in which implantation of the blastocyst occurs outside the endometrium of the uterus. It is gynecological important, particularly in the developing world, because of ...

    Authors: Urge Gerema, Tilahun Alemayehu, Getachew Chane, Diliab Desta and Amenu Diriba

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:130

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Maternal mortality remains a pressing concern across Sub-Sahara Africa. The ‘Three Delays Model’ suggests that maternal deaths are a consequence of delays in: seeking care, reaching medical care and receiving ...

    Authors: Faye Forbes, Karen Wynter, Berihun M. Zeleke and Jane Fisher

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:128

    Content type: Research article

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  44. According to the World Health Organization, smoking is the most important risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes in industrialized nations. As the individual factors (body mass index – BMI (kg/m2) – and cigar...

    Authors: Veronika Günther, Ibrahim Alkatout, Christoph Vollmer, Nicolai Maass, Alexander Strauss and Manfred Voigt

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:127

    Content type: Research article

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  45. To determine the effects of maternal age at first cesarean on maternal complications and adverse outcomes of pregnancy with the second cesarean.

    Authors: Shilei Bi, Lizi Zhang, Jingsi Chen, Minshan Huang, Lijun Huang, Shanshan Zeng, Yulian Li, Yingyu Liang, Jinping Jia, Suiwen Wen, Yinli Cao, Shaoshuai Wang, Xiaoyan Xu, Ling Feng, Xianlan Zhao, Yangyu Zhao…

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:126

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Neonatal near miss is a neonate who nearly died but survived from a severe complication occurred during pregnancy, birth or within 0–28 days of extra-uterine life. However, there is no available data that quan...

    Authors: Anteneh Fikrie Tekola, Genet Baye, Elias Amaje and Kebede Tefera

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:125

    Content type: Research article

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