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Table 1 Characteristics of study subjects based on T3 vitamin D status

From: Impact of maternal dietary carbohydrate intake and vitamin D-related genetic risk score on birth length: the Vitamin D Pregnant Mother (VDPM) cohort study

Variables ‘Deficiency-insufficiency’ VD status (n = 86) (47.0%) ‘Sufficiency’ VD status (n = 97) (53.0%) P Value
Demography
Age, years 28.92 (5.07) 30.28 (6.12) 0.101
Maternal age group    0.025
 a. ≤ 20 1 5.8  
 b. 21–30 60.2 43.0  
 c. > 30 38.8 51.2  
Education    0.255
 a. Primary 23.5 31.4  
 b. Secondary 38.8 41.9  
 c. Tertiary 37.8 26.7  
Sun exposure status per day    0.721
 a. < 1 h 52.6 48.8  
 b. ≥ 1 h 47.4 51.2  
Maternal anthropometry
Pre-conception body weight, kg 54.56 (11.21) 55.71 (10.15) 0.469
Height, cm 154.73 (5.79) 153.85 (6.65) 0.341
Pre-pregnancy BMI, kg/m2 23.12 (4.46) 23.61 (4.35) 0.457
Pre-pregnancy BMI status    0.361
 a. < 25 kg/m2 72.4 65.1  
 b. ≥ 25 kg/m2 27.6 34.9  
Newborn outcomes
Gestational age at birth, weeks 39.08 (1.81) 38.73 (1.94) 0.211
Infant gender
 a. Boy 51 60.5  
 b. Girl 49 39.5  
Birthweight, g 3147.09 (458.73) 3244.90 (469.51) 0.156
Birth length, cm 48.53 (2.05) 48.59 (3.43) 0.893
Head circumference, cm 33.55 (1.89) 34.10 (2.97) 0.139
Biochemical Measurements
 IGF-1, ng/mL 20.74 (12.89) 32.21 (1.89) 0.036
 Changes in 25(OH)D, ng/mL 1.52 (6.17) 14.12 (8.40)  < 0.001
  1. Data are presented as percentages (%) for categorical data variables and mean and standard deviation [mean (SD)] for numeric data variables. Indicators of vitamin D status during pregnancy are based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM); sufficient (≥ 20 ng/mL), insufficient (12–19.00 ng/mL) and deficient (< 12 ng/mL). Changes in 25(OH)D levels during pregnancy are defined by 25(OH)D T3 – 25(OH)D T1
  2. IGF-1 Insulin-like growth factor 1, 25(OH)D 25-hydroxyvitamin D, T1 First trimester, T3 Third trimester, BMI Body mass index