Geerlings SE. Clinical presentations and epidemiology of urinary tract infections. Microbiol Spectr. 2016;4(5). PMID: 27780014 . https://doi.org/10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0002-2012.
Mohseni M, Azami-Aghdash S, Gareh Sheyklo S, Moosavi A, Nakhaee M, Pournaghi-Azar F, et al. Prevalence and reasons of self-medication in pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Comm Based Nurs Midwifery. 2018;6(4):272–84.
Mueller N, Whyatt R, Hoepner L, Oberfield S, Dominguez-Bello MG, Widen EM, et al. Prenatal exposure to antibiotics, cesarean section and risk of childhood obesity. Int J Obesity. 2015;39(4):665–70.
Lapin B, Piorkowski J, Ownby D, Freels S, Chavez N, Hernandez EM, et al. Relationship between prenatal antibiotic use and asthma in at-risk children. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2015;114(3):203–7.
Jędrychowski W, Gałaś A, Whyatt R, Perera F. The prenatal use of antibiotics and the development of allergic disease in one year old infants. A preliminary study. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2006;19(1):70–6.
Langley J, Halperin S. Allergy to antibiotics in children: perception versus reality. Paediatr Child Health. 2002;7(4):233–7.
Partap U, Allcock SH, Parker E, Gurdasani D, Young EH, Sandhu MS. Association between early life antibiotic use and childhood overweight and obesity: a narrative review. Glob Health Epidemiol Genom. 2018;3:e18-e.
Jordan S, Storey M, Morgan G. Antibiotics and allergic disorders in childhood. Open Nurs J. 2008;2(1):48–57.
Zhao D, Su H, Cheng J, Wang X, Xie M, Li K, et al. Prenatal antibiotic use and risk of childhood wheeze/asthma: A meta-analysis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2015;26(8):756–64.
Lin Y-C, Chen Y-C, Kuo C-H, Chang Y-H, Huang H-Y, Yeh W-J, et al. Antibiotic exposure and asthma development in children with allergic rhinitis. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2020;53(5):803–11.
Blaser MJ. Antibiotic use and its consequences for the normal microbiome. Science. 2016;352(6285):544–5.
Rogawski ET, Platts-Mills JA, Seidman JC, John S, Mustafa Mahfuz M, Ulak M, et al. Use of antibiotics in children younger than two years in eight countries: A prospective cohort study. Bull World Health Organ. 2017;95:49–61.
Barker AK, Brown K, Ahsan M, Sengupta S, Safdar N. Social determinants of antibiotic misuse: a qualitative study of community members in Haryana, India. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):333. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4261-4.
Raheel H, Alsakran S, Alghamdi A, et al. Antibiotics and over the counter medication use and its correlates among Arab pregnant women visiting a tertiary care hospital in riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Pakistan J Med Sci. 2017;33:452–456.
Agarwal S, Yewale VN, Dharmapalan D. Antibiotics Use and Misuse in Children: A Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Survey of Parents in India. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015;9(11):SC21-SC24. https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2015/14933.6819.
Zaki NM, Albarraq AA. Use, attitudes and knowledge of medications among pregnant women: a Saudi study. Saudi Pharmaceut J. 2014;22(5):419–28.
Zewdie T, Azale T, Shimeka A, Lakew AM. Self-medication during pregnancy and associated factors among pregnant women in Goba town, southeast Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study. BMC Res Notes. 2018;11(1):713.
Li P, Hayat K, Shi L, Lambojon K, Saeed A, Majid Aziz M, et al. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance among Chinese pharmacy customers: a multicenter survey study. Antibiotics (Basel). 2020;9(4):184.
Ocan M, Obuku EA, Bwanga F, Akena D, Richard S, Ogwal-Okeng J, et al. Household antimicrobial self-medication: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the burden, risk factors and outcomes in developing countries. BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1):742.
Haenssgen MJ, Xayavong T, Charoenboon N, Warapikuptanun P, Khine Zaw Y. The consequences of AMR education and awareness raising: outputs, outcomes, and behavioural Impacts of an antibiotic-related educational activity in Lao PDR. Antibiotics (Basel). 2018;7(4):95.
Nordeng, H.; Ystrøm, E.; Einarson, A. Perception of risk regarding the use of medicationsand other exposures during pregnancy. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;66:207–14 [CrossRef].
Sanz EJ, Gómez-López T, Martínez-Quintas MJ. Perception of teratogenic risk of common medicines. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2001; 95:127–131.
Stenson B, Syhakhang L, Eriksson B, Tomson G. Real world pharmacy: assessing the quality of private pharmacy practice in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Soc Sci Med (1982). 2001;52(3):393–404.
Caillet C, Sichanh C, Syhakhang L, Delpierre C, Manithip C, Mayxay M, et al. Population awareness of risks related to medicinal product use in Vientiane Capital, Lao PDR: a cross-sectional study for public health improvement in low and middle income countries. BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1):590-.
Togoobaatar G, Ikeda N, Ali M, Sonomjamts M, Dashdemberel S, Mori R, et al. Survey of non-prescribed use of antibiotics for children in an urban community in Mongolia. Bull World Health Organ. 2010;88(12):930–6.
Alhomoud F, Almahasnah R, Alhomoud FK. "You could lose when you misuse” - factors affecting over-the-counter sale of antibiotics in community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia: a qualitative study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2018;18(1):915.
Bulabula ANH, Dramowski A, Mehtar S. Antibiotic use in pregnancy: knowledge, attitudes and practices among pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa. J Antimicrobial Chemother. 2020;75(2):473–81.
Llor C, Bjerrum L. Antimicrobial resistance: risk associated with antibiotic overuse and initiatives to reduce the problem. Ther Adv Drug Saf. 2014;5(6):229–41. https://doi.org/10.1177/2042098614554919.
Machowska A, Sihavong A, Eriksen J, Vongsouvath M, Marrone G, Sychareun V, et al. Containment of antibiotic REsistance–measures to improve antibiotic use in pregnancy, childbirth and young children (CAREChild): A protocol of a prospective, quasi experimental interventional study in Lao PDR. BMJ Open. 2020;10:e040334.
Hillier S, Roberts Z, Dunstan F, Butler C, Howard A, Palmer S. Prior antibiotics and risk of antibiotic-resistant community-acquired urinary tract infection: a case–control study. J Antimicrobial Chemother. 2007;60(1):92–9.
Chung A, Perera R, Brueggemann AB, Elamin AE, Harnden A, Mayon-White R, et al. Effect of antibiotic prescribing on antibiotic resistance in individual children in primary care: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2007;335(7617):429–31.
Bell BG, Schellevis F, Stobberingh E, Goossens H, Pringle M. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of antibiotic consumption on antibiotic resistance. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14(1):13.
Sychareun V, Sihavong A, Machowska A, Onthongdee X, Chaleunvong K, Keohavong B, Eriksen J, Hanson C, Vongsouvath M, Marrone G, Brauner A, Mayxay M, Kounnavong S, Lundborg CS. Knowledge, Attitudes, Perception and Reported Practices of Healthcare Providers on Antibiotic Use and Resistance in Pregnancy, Childbirth and Children under Two in Lao PDR: A Mixed Methods Study. Antibiotics 2021;10:1462. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10121462
Sihavong A, Lundborg CS, Syhakhang L, Akkhavong K, Tomson G, Wahlström R. Antimicrobial self medication for reproductive tract infections in two provinces in Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Sex Transm Infect. 2006;82(2):182–6.
Keohavong B, Vonglokham M, Phoummalaysith B, Louangpradith V, Inthaphatha S, Kariya T, et al. Antibiotic prescription for under-fives with common cold or upper respiratory tract infection in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR. Trop Med Health. 2019;47(1):16.
Pope C, Mays N. Qualitative research in health care. Fourth edition. ed. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell; 2020.
Liamputtong P. Qualitative research methods. Fifth edition ed. Docklands: Oxford University Press; 2019.
Lao Statistics Bureau. Lao social indicator survey II: survey findings report. Vientiane: Lao Statistics Bureau, Lao PDR; 2017.
Graneheim UH, Lundman B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Educ Today. 2004;24(2):105–12.
Pan DST, Huang JH, Lee MHM, Yu Y, Chen MIC, Goh EH, et al. Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards antibiotic use in upper respiratory tract infections among patients seeking primary health care in Singapore. BMC Fam Pract. 2016;17(1):148.
Irawati L, Alrasheedy AA, Hassali MA, Saleem F. Low-income community knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in Jelutong District, Penang, Malaysia: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):1292-.
Wang J, Sheng Y, Ni J, Zhu J, Zhou Z, Liu T, et al. Shanghai parents’ perception and attitude towards the use of antibiotics on children: a cross-sectional study. Infect Drug Resist. 2019;12:3259–67.
Widayati A, Suryawati S, Crespigny Cd, Hiller JE. Beliefs about the use of nonprescribed antibiotics among people in Yogyakarta City, Indonesia: a qualitative study based on the theory of planned behavior. Asia-Pacific J Public Health. 2015;27(2):NP402-NP413.
Vaz LE, Kleinman KP, Lakoma MD, Dutta-Linn MM, Nahill C, Hellinger J, et al. Prevalence of Parental Misconceptions About Antibiotic Use. Pediatrics (Evanston). 2015;136(2):221–31.
Ghouri F, Hollywood A, Ryan K. Urinary tract infections and antibiotic use in pregnancy - qualitative analysis of online forum content. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019;19(1):289.
Kamuhabwa A, Jalal R. Drug use in pregnancy: Knowledge of drug dispensers and pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Indian J Pharmacol. 2011;43(3):345–9.
Nicolini G, Sperotto F, Esposito S. Combating the rise of antibiotic resistance in children. Minerva Pediatr. 2014;66:31–39.
Outthachack V, Sihavong A, Mayxay M. Home Care of Under 5-Children with Diarrhea by Caregivers Before Presenting to Central Hospitals, Vientiane Capital, Lao PDR. Lao Med J. 2011;2(1):33–40.
Ding L, Sun Q, Sun W, et al. Antibiotic use in rural China: a cross-sectional survey of knowledge, attitudes and self-reported practices among caregivers in Shandong province. BMC Infect Dis. 2015;15:576. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-015-1323-z.
Van Hecke O, Chris C, Butler CC, Wang K, Tonkin-Crine S. Parents’ perceptions of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance (PAUSE): a qualitative interview study. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2019;74:1741–7. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz091.
McNulty CA, Cookson BD, Lewis MA. Education of healthcare professionals and the public. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2012;67 Suppl 1:i11-8. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dks199.