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Table 2 Fixed effect of individual-, household- and community-level factors associated with SSC in Nigeria

From: Coverage and factors associated with mother and newborn skin-to-skin contact in Nigeria: a multilevel analysis

Variable Model I Model II Model III Model IV Model V
Individual level factors
Age group of women
15-19   1.00    1.00
20-24   0.99 (0.64-1.51)    0.99 (0.66-1.50)
25-29   0.93 (0.59-1.47)    0.98 (0.63-1.51)
30-34   0.93 (0.57-1.51)    0.99 (0.62-1.60)
35-39   0.81 (0.48-1.36)    0.90 (0.54-1.49)
40-44   0.93 (0.52-1.64)    1.02 (0.59-1.79)
45-49   0.47 (0.23-0.96)*    0.53 (0.27-1.06)
Educational attainment
No formal education   1.00    1.00
Primary   0.98 (0.74-1.30)    1.08 (0.82-1.42)
Secondary   1.33 (1.00-1.76)*    1.41 (1.06-1.86)*
Higher   2.50 (1.68-3.72)*    2.35 (1.57-3.50)*
Religion
Christianity   1.00    1.00
Islam   1.83 (1.35-2.49)*    1.11 (0.80-1.54)
ATR/others   72.08 (24.68-210-57)*    55.31 (20.18-151.63)*
Media exposure      
Has no exposure   1.00    1.00
Has exposure   0.93 (0.75-1.16)    0.92 (0.74-1.15)
Total children ever born
1-2   1.00    1.00
3-4   0.98 (0.76-1.28)    0.99 (0.75-1.30)
4+   1.13 (0.82-1.55)    1.10 (0.79-1.52)
Health insurance
Not covered   1.00    1.00
Covered   1.31 (0.75-2.30)    1.13 (0.66-1.93)
Mode of delivery
Caesarean section   0.12 (0.06-0.21)*    0.12 (0.07-0.22)*
Vaginal   1.00    1.00
Place of delivery
Health facility   15.59 (10.41-23.36)*    15.58 (10.64-22.82)*
Home   1.00    1.00
ANC visits
No visit   1.00    1.00
1-3 visits   1.54 (1.11-2.14)*    1.46 (1.06-2.01)*
4+ visits   2.48 (1.81-3.39)*    2.40 (1.78-3.24)*
Preceding birth interval
<2years   1.00    1.00
2-3 years   0.82 (0.64-1.06)    0.82 (0.65-1.05)
>3-4years   0.91 (0.69-1.22)    0.90 (0.69-1.19)
>4years   1.06 (0.78-1.43)    1.01 (0.76-1.36)
First born   0.96 (0.69-1.34)    0.95 (0.69-1.32)
Birthweight
Low birthweight (<2.5kg)   2.16 (1.27-3.67)*    2.10 (1.26-3.51)*
Normal (≥2.5kg)   1.00    1.00
Household-level factors
Household wealth quintile
Poorest    1.00   1.00
Poorer    1.49 (1.11-2.00)*   1.09 (0.79-1.50)
Middle    1.93 (1.39-2.68)*   1.14 (0.78-1.67)
Richer    3.12 (2.17-4.49)*   1.38 (0.89-2.12)
Richest    5.83 (3.84-8.83)*   1.70 (1.04-2.79)*
Household size
1-4    1.00   1.00
5-8    0.83 (0.70-0.99)*   0.97 (0.77-1.21)
8+    0.74 (0.58-0.93)*   0.93 (0.70-1.24)
Community-level factors
Residential status
Urban     1.00 1.00
Rural     0.89 (0.60-1.31) 1.12 (0.74-1.24)
Geographical region
North Central     1.00 1.00
North East     6.31 (3.48-11.44)* 11.52 (5.92-22.43)*
North West     2.52 (1.48-4.32)* 6.75 (3.62-12.56)*
South East     0.22 (0.12-0.43)* 0.18 (0.09-0.37)*
South South     2.22 (1.25-3.94)* 3.49 (1.85-6.61)*
South West     0.77 (0.43-1.36) 0.66 (0.36-1.21)
Community non-use of media
Low     1.00 1.00
High     0.25 (0.15-0.41)* 0.35 (0.20-0.61)*
Community poverty
Low     1.00 1.00
High     0.67 (0.41-1.09) 1.15 (0.67-2.20)
Community illiteracy
Low     1.00 1.00
High     0.48 (0.30-0.78)* 1.03 (0.62-1.71)
  1. Model I – empty null model, baseline model without any explanatory variables (unconditional model)
  2. Model II – adjusted for only individual-level factors
  3. Model III – adjusted for only household-level factors
  4. Model IV – adjusted for only community-level factors
  5. Model V – adjusted for individual-, household-, and community-level factors (full model)
  6. *Significant at p<0.05