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Table 2 Measures used pre and post for intervention and comparison groups

From: Can a text message a week improve breastfeeding?

Items Comment Cronbach's alpha
Demographic Including postcode or usual residence, education level achieved, annual income, relationship status, other children, web/phone use. [7],[35]  
Infant details Including, birth day to calculate age in days, type of delivery (vaginal or caesarean), weight. [7],[35]  
Mother details Including breastfeeding intentions prior to birth, return to work, ethnicity. [7],[35]  
Current infant feeding practices 24 hour recall, indicated as best practice. Breastfeeding definition in accordance with WHO indicators. [7],[8],[35]  
Self-efficacy Previously validated breastfeeding self-efficacy measured by 13 items using a five point Likert scale anchored by `not at all confident' to `always confident'. [36] .92
Social support As a function of self-efficacy. Also included current levels of support from family, peers, professionals and organisations measured using a seven point Likert scale with summated score anchored by `no support' and `lots of support'. [36],[37] .97
Coping checklist Identifies active and emotions-focussed coping, and self-accountability as a contributor to efficacy.  
Ways of Coping Checklist (WCCL), five point Likert scale anchored by `rarely' and `frequently' identifies five main forms of coping:
• problem-focused (13 items); .86
• wishful thinking (6 items); .86
• seeks social support (3 items); .90
• blamed self (3 items); .89
• avoidance (9 items). .88
Problem-focused + social support = active coping.  
Wishful thinking + blamed self + avoidance = emotions focussed coping. [17],[38],[39]
Emotions Positive (hope, challenge) and .85
negative (fear, guilt, regret) emotions used 5 items using a 5 point Likert scale anchored by `not at all' and `very much' [39]. .79
Breastfeeding knowledge and awareness Eight validated questions on knowledge and awareness [36],[37].