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Table 4 Mortality risk factors in outborn infants (birthweight ≥ 1,000 g, no life-threatening malformations) transferred by ambulance

From: Prognostic role of TOPS in ambulance-transferred neonates in a low-resource setting: a retrospective observational study

Variable Discharged (n = 111) Dead (n = 60) p-value
Body temperature < 36.5 °C 79 (71.2) 52 (86.7) 0.04
Oxygen Saturation < 90% 20 (18.0) 37 (61.7)  < 0.0001
Capillary refill time ≥ 3 s 2 (1.8) 15 (25.0)  < 0.0001
Blood sugar < 40 mg/dl b 5/99 (5.1) 8/58 (13.8) 0.07
TOPS: b     < 0.0001
 0 26/99 (26.3) 2/58 (3.4)  
 1 53/99 (53.5) 19/58 (32.8)  
 2 19/99 (19.2) 24/58 (41.4)  
 3 1/99 (1.0) 11/58 (19.0)  
 4 0/99 (0.0) 2/58 (3.4)  
Maternal age, years: a 24 (20–30) 22 (20–28) 0.27
Homebirth 9 (8.1) 7 (11.7) 0.63
Males 64 (57.7) 34 (56.7) 0.99
Females 47 (42.3) 26 (43.3)  
Gestational age:    0.03
 28–31 weeks 10 (9.0) 14 (23.3)  
 32–36 weeks 21 (18.9) 12 (20.0)  
 37–42 weeks 80 (72.1) 34 (56.7)  
Birth weight, grams a 2750 (2000–3058) 2380 (1538–2900) 0.02
5-min Apgar score:    0.12
 0–3 3 (2.7) 6 (10.0)  
 4–6 27 (24.3) 9 (15.0)  
 7–10 69 (62.2) 37 (61.7)  
 Unknown 12 (10.8) 8 (13.3)  
Distance, km a 13 (7–23) 11 (6–25) 0.23
Age at admission:    0.32
 ≤ 24 h 69 (62.2) 42 (70.0)  
 > 24 h 42 (37.8) 18 (30.0)  
Diagnosis at admission:    0.07
 Asphyxia or respiratory distress 37 (33.3) 18 (30.0)  
 Prematurity 21 (18.9) 21 (35.0)  
 Sepsis 30 (27.1) 15 (25.0)  
 Other 23 (20.7) 6 (10.0)  
Before transport:
 Warming 55 (49.5) 31 (51.7) 0.87
 Suctioning airway 42 (37.8) 23 (38.3) 0.99
 Oxygen administration 29 (26.1) 14 (23.3) 0.72
 Face Mask Ventilation 27 (24.3) 15 (25.0) 0.99
 Chest compressions 19 (17.1) 9 (15.0) 0.83
 Antibiotic therapy 5 (4.5) 5 (8.3) 0.32
 Neonatal prophylaxis 30 (27.0) 10 (16.7) 0.14
 Breastfeeding 45 (40.5) 16 (26.7) 0.09
Pre-transfer phone call 39 (35.1) 10 (16.7) 0.01
Written referral letter 98 (88.2) 51 (85.0) 0.63
During transport:
 Kangaroo mother care 21 (18.9) 12 (20.0) 0.84
 Breastfeeding 21 (18.9) 4 (6.7) 0.04
 Oxygen administration 23 (20.7) 10 (16.7) 0.69
 Nurse or medical doctor during the transport 91 (82.0) 49 (81.7) 0.99
  1. Data expressed as n (%) or a median (IQR)
  2. bData not available in 14 neonates. Other diagnoses included respiratory distress (n = 6), congenital malformation (n = 6), gastrointestinal diseases (n = 7), cutaneous or musculoskeletal diseases (n = 4), metabolic problems (n = 2), convulsions (n = 2), poor growth or weight loss (n = 2)