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Table 3 Breastfeeding before discharge in the two groups

From: Effectiveness of early essential newborn care on breastfeeding and maternal outcomes: a nonrandomized controlled study

  Intervention group (n = 91) Control group (n = 91) pa
The time when formula milk is first served, (h*), median (IQR) 4 (2, 6) 2 (1, 4)  < 0.001
Amount of formula milk given before discharge (ml*), median (IQR) 70 (45, 127.5) 90 (65, 150)  < 0.001
Number of breastfeeding within 24 h after birth, n (%) 7 (6, 8) 5 (4, 6)  < 0.001
Feeding pattern before discharge, n (%)     < 0.001
 Exclusive breastfeeding 67 (73.6) 40 (44.0)  
 Mixed feeding 24 (26.4) 47 (51.6)  
 Artificial feeding 0 4 (4.4)  
BSES-SF before discharge*, mean ± SD 55.78 ± 8.96 46.74 ± 10.08  < 0.001
  1. a the two-tailed t test, Mann–Whitney U test, or Fisher’s exact test were used for comparisons between the intervention group and the control group
  2. *BSES-SF Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Scale Short Form, h hour, ml millilitre, g gram