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Table 1 Maternal characteristics and outcomes in pregnancies with either maternal hemoglobin (Hb) < 110 g/l or Hb ≥ 110 g/l. The values given are median (range) or n (%)

From: Gestational anemia and maternal antenatal and postpartum psychological distress in a prospective FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study

  Hb < 110 g/l
during pregnancy
n = 301
Hb ≥ 110 g/l
during pregnancy
n = 972
p-value
Maternal factors
 Age at delivery (years, median(range)) 30 (18–45) 30 (17–44) 0.658
 Primiparity, n(%) 155 (52.5%) 612 (64.2%)  < 0.001*
 Body mass index median(range) 22 (16–45) 23.5 (17–46)  < 0.001*
 Prior Cesarean delivery, n(%) 21 (7.1%) 55 (5.8%) 0.398
 Pre-pregnancy hypertension*, n(%) 4 (1.8%) 18 (2.3%) 0.799
 Type I diabetes, n(%) 1 (0.4%) 0  
 Type II diabetes, n(%) 2 (0.9%) 2 (0.3%)  
SSRI/SNRI medication during pregnancy, n(%)
I trimester 7 (3.1%) 24 (3.0%) 0.985
III trimester 5 (2.6%) 18 (2.6%) 1.000
Smoking, n(%)    0.016*
I trimester 31 (10.4%) 99 (10.2%)  
III trimester 30 (10.0%) 55 (5.7%)  
Alcohol consumption, n(%)
I trimester 46 (20.4%) 192 (24.6%) 0.213
III trimester 22 (11.6%) 75 (10.8%) 0.696
Level of education, n(%)    0.579
Secondary school 83 (36.2%) 267 (33.4%)  
High school or vocational education 65 (28.4%) 220 (27.5%)  
University or polytechnic degree or higher 81 (35.4%) 312 (39.0%)  
Pregnancy
 Hb < 20 weeks, median(range) 122 (86–148) 130 (111–153)  < 0.001*
 Hb 20–30 weeks, median(range) 108 (91–128) 121 (110–143)  < 0.001*
 Hb > 30 weeks, median(range) 108 (87–132) 124 (110–149)  < 0.001*
 Threatening prematurity, n(%) 2 (0.7%) 2 (0.2%) 0.239
 Antenatal corticosteroids, n(%) 11 (3.7%) 18 (1.9%) 0.067
Delivery and postpartum period
 Duration of labor (minutes, median(range)) 430 (38–2066) 464 (39–2204) 0.196
 Induction of labor, n(%) 70 (23.7%) 233 (24.5%) 0.794
 Mode of delivery, n(%)
  Vaginal delivery 242 (82.0%) 778 (81.6%) 0.877
  Cesarean section 53 (18.0%) 175 (18.4%)  
 Cesarean section urgency    0.931
  Elective 20 (6.8%) 62 (6.5%)  
  Emergency 30 (10.2%) 101 (10.6%)  
  Crash emergency 3 (1.0%) 12 (1.3%)  
 Red blood cell transfusion, n(%) 14 (4.7%) 25 (2.6%) 0.083
Neonatal outcome
 Gestational age at delivery, median(range) 39.9 (33.2–42.2) 40.1 (29.2–42.4) 0.073
 Birth weight (g, median(range)) 3634 (1560–4950) 3550 (820–5200) 0.512
 Male, n(%) 147 (49.2%) 500 (51.8%) 0.423
 Umbilical artery pH, median(range) 7.28 (6.99–7.48) 7.27 (6.80–7.54) 0.373
 Umbilical vein pH, median(range) 7.36 (7.11–7.52) 7.35 (6.94–7.52) 0.387
 Neonatal intensive care, n(%) 53 (18.0%) 128 (13.4%) 0.053
  1. *Self-reported diagnosis