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Table 3 Women’s child characteristics, childbirth and breastfeeding experience, comparing UK and Finland

From: Parenting stress in the early years – a survey of the impact of breastfeeding and social support for women in Finland and the UK

  Finland
N(%)
UK
N(%)
χ2 (df) p ES1
Uniparous 581 (57%) 299 (56%) .10(1) .755 V = .01
Youngest Child:
0–11 months 663 (66%) 300 (57%)    V = .12
12–23 months 344 (34%) 217 (41%) 23.6 (2)  < .001  
 > 24 months 2 (0.2%) 11 (2.1%)    
Delivery:
Vaginal 872(86%) 396 (74%)    
Planned C section 49(4.8%) 48 (9.0%) 33.3(2)  < .001 V = .15
Unplanned C section 94 (9.3%) 91 (17.0%)    
Skin to skin: 855 (84%) 416 (78%) 10.0 (1) .002 V = .08
Current feeding
Only breastmilk 878 (87%) 456 (85%)    
Mixed 137 (13.5%) 77 (14%) .26 (1) .607 V = .01
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) t (df)   d
No of children (range 1–6) 1.6 (.94) 1.5 (.71) -10.647 (1360.86)2 .024 .11
Overall birth experience: 1 v bad – 5 v good) 3.9 (1.1) 1.7 (0.62) 49.187 (1544.6)2 < .001 2.22
Breastfeeding attitudes 31.9 (3.1) 29.2 (2.9) 16.237(1039.91)2 < .001 .87
  1. Effect size: χ2 analysis expressed as Cramers V; t-tests as Cohen’s d
  2. Welch’s correction for heterogeneity of variance applied