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Table 3 Results of bivariable and multivariable multilevel logistic regression analyses of factors associated with adolescent childbearing in Burundi

From: Prevalence, trend and determinants of adolescent childbearing in Burundi: a multilevel analysis of the 1987 to 2016–17 Burundi Demographic and Health Surveys data

Variables/categories 2016–17 BDHS (weighted sample, N = 3859)
Bivariable analysis Multivariable analysis
uOR (95%CI) P value aOR (95% CI) P value
Individual-level variables
Adolescent’s age
  15–17 years (RC) 1.00   1.00  
  18–19 years 13.87 (9.93–19.38) <  0.001 5.85 (3.54–9.65) < 0.001
Education
  Secondary /High (RC) 1.00   1.00  
  Primary 2.71 (2.02–3.64) <  0.001 2.58 (1.54–4.25) < 0.001
  No education 5.79 (3.80–8.80) <  0.001 4.18 (1.88–9.30) < 0.001
Currently Working
  No (RC) 1.00   1.00  
  Yes 3.17 (2.34–4.29) < 0.001 1.43 (0.86–2.39) 0.170
Household Wealth Index
  Poorest (RC) 1.00   1.00  
  Poorer 0.56 (0.38–0.84) 0.005 1.18 (0.56–2.46) 0.660
  Middle 0.50 (0.34–0.75) 0.001 0.75 (0.34–1.12) 0.467
  Richer 0.56 (0.38–0.83) 0.004 0.61 (0.55–1.07) 0.052
  Richest 0.46 (0.31–0.70) < 0.001 0.52 (0.45–0.87) 0.007
Religion
  No religion (RC) 1.00   1.00  
  Catholic 0.21 (0.04–1.05) 0.057 2.78 (0.02–495.32) 0.698
  Protestant 0.28 (0.05–1.41) 0.122 2.98 (0.02–531.20) 0.679
  Adventist 0.60 (0.11–3.30) 0.559 3.25 (0.02–653.55) 0.663
  Muslim 0.40 (0.07–2.27) 0.303 10.55 (0.06–2016.49) 0.379
  Othersa 0.44 (0.07–2.73) 0.381 4.22 (0.02–960.45) 0.603
Access to Mass Media
  No Access (RC) 1.00   1.00  
  Has Access 0.65 (0.51–0.84) 0.001 0.67 (0.43–1.06) 0.090
Age at First Marriage
  18–19 years (RC) 1.00   1.00  
   ≤ 17 years 9.66 (3.57–26.11) < 0.001 9.28 (3.11–27.65) < 0.001
  Never in union (NA) 0.00 (0.00–0.01) < 0.001 0.01 (0.00–0.02) < 0.001
Knowledge of Any Contraceptive Methods 1.00    
  Has Knowledge (RC) 1.00   1.00  
  No Knowledge 9.86 (3.82–25.44) < 0.001 5.33 (1.48–19.16) 0.010
Modern Contraceptive Use
  Yes (RC) 1.00   1.00  
  No 35.17 (21.03–58.79) < 0.001 24.48 (9.80–61.14) < 0.001
Community-Level Variables
Place of Residence
  Rural (RC) 1.00    
  Urban 1.17 (0.77–1.78) 0.456   
Health Regions
  Bujumbura Mairie 1.00   1.00  
  North 0.96 (0.54–1.70) 0.887 0.46 (0.14–1.44) 0.182
  Central East 0.56 (0.31–1.02) 0.058 0.34 (0.11–1.05) 0.062
  West 0.83 (0.44–1.54) 0.546 0.26 (0.08–0.86) 0.027
  South 0.44 (0.24–0.81) 0.008 0.31 (0.10–0.96) 0.041
Community-level Education
Low (RC) 1.00    
High 0.88 (0.60–1.27) 0.491   
Community-level Poverty
  Low (RC) 1.00   1.00  
  High 1.31 (0.97–1.78) 0.083 2.19 (1.03–4.64) 0.042
Random effect Empty model Full model
  Community variance (SE) 0.83 (0.20) 0.62 (0.14)
  ICC (%) 20.2 15.8
  MOR 2.37 2.11
Model fitness
  Log likelihood − 1079.61 − 452.85
  Deviance 2159.22 905.70
  AIC 2163.22 955.71
  BIC 2175.74 1112.16
Clusters 553 553
  1. Note: Others
  2. aJehovah witness and other sects
  3. AIC Akaike’s Information Criterion, BIC Bayesian Information Criterion, ICC Intra-Cluster Correlation, MOR Median Odds Ratio, SE Standard Error, uOR Unadjusted Odds Ratio, aOR Adjusted Odds Ratio, 95% CI 95% Confidence Interval