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Table 3 Characteristics (independent variables) dichotomized according to Cesarean delivery and vaginal delivery (dependent variable) on bivariate or crude analysis and results following adjusted analysis incorporating all significant (p < 0.05) independent variables on crude analysis

From: HbA1c at term delivery and adverse pregnancy outcome

Variable LGA (n = 99) Non LGA (n = 901) P Value RR (95% CI) Multivariable Logistic Regression Analysis
AOR (95%CI) P value
HbA1c (%) 5.4[5.1–5.6] 5.3[5.1–5.6] 0.17   1.43 (0.93–2.18) 0.101
Gestational age (weeks, mean ± SD) 39.1 ± 1.1 39.0 ± 1.1 0.55    
Age (years, mean ± SD) 31.0 ± 4.5 30.6 ± 4.6 0.43    
Parity category    0.068    
 0 29 (29.3%) 367 (40.7%)     
 1 37 (37.4%) 288 (32.0%)     
 2 16 (16.2%) 150 (16.6%)     
  ≥ 3 17 (17.2%) 96 (10.7%)     
Previous miscarriage 23 (23.2%) 189 (21.0%) 0.60 1.11 (0.76–1.62)   
Ethnicity    0.81    
 Malay 66 (66.7%) 555 (61.6%)     
 Chinese 11 (11.1%) 116 (12.9%)     
 Indian 10 (10.1%) 106 (11.8%)     
 Others 12 (12 .1%) 124 (13.8%)     
BMI (kg/m2, mean ± SD) 29.9 ± 4.8 28.8 ± 4.9 0.022   1.04 (1.00–1.09) 0.048
Hemoglobin < 11 g/dL 30 (30.3%) 182 (20.2%) 0.02 1.50 (1.08–2.08) 1.74 (1.09–2.78) 0.021
Medical and obstetric history
Diabetes in pregnancy 23 (23.2%) 219 (24.3%) 0.81 0.96 (0.66–1.39)   
  Antiglycemic 7 (7.1%) 63 (7.0%) 0.98 1.01 (0.48–2.15)   
  Asthma 5 (5.1%) 48 (5.3%) 0.91 0.95 (0.39–2.33)   
Hypertension in pregnancy 6 (6.1%) 43 (4.8%) 0.57 1.27 (0.56–2.91)   
Group B streptococcus carriage 12 (12.1%) 47 (5.2%) 0.006 2.32 (1.28–4.23) 2.71 (1.37–5.38) 0.004
Thalassemia trait 0 (0.0%) 10 (1.1%) 0.29 *   
HIV or Hepatitis B infection 1 (1.0%) 8 (0.9%) 0.61 1.14 (0.14–9.00)   
Previous Cesarean 17 (17.2%) 148 (16.4%) 0.85 1.05 (0.66–1.65)   
Induction of labor 16 (16.2%) 190 (21.1%) 0.25 0.77 (0.48–1.17)   
  1. Values are stated as mean ± standard deviation, median [interquartile range] or n (%). Crude analysis by t test for continuous data, Mann–Whitney U test for non-parametric data and Chi Square test for categoric variable, Adjustment made utilizing multivariable binary logistic regression analysis of significant independent variable with adjusted results shown if variable incorporated in the model