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Table 1 Characteristics and outcomes of study population

From: HbA1c at term delivery and adverse pregnancy outcome

Characteristics Participants (N = 1000)
HbA1c (%) 5.3 [5.1–5.6]
 HbA1c ≤ 5.6% 794 (79.4%)
 HbA1c 5.7–6.4% 197(19.7%)
 HbA1c ≥ 6.5% 9 (0.9%)
Gestational age (weeks, mean ± SD) 39.0 ± 1.1
Age (years, mean ± SD) 30.6 ± 4.6
Parity (median [IQR]) 1 [0–2]
 0 396 (39.6%)
 1 325 (32.5%)
 2 166 (16.6%)
  ≥ 3 113 (11.3%)
Previous miscarriage 212 (21.2%)
Ethnicity
 Malay 621 (62.1%)
 Chinese 127 (12.7%)
 Indian 116 (11.6%)
 Others 136 (13.6%)
BMI (kg/m2, mean ± SD) 28.9 ± 4.9
  < 25 215 (21.5%)
 25–29.9 431 (43.1%)
  ≥ 30 354 (35.4%)
Hemoglobin, predelivery (g/dL, mean ± SD) 12.0 ± 1.3
Medical & Obstetric History
Diabetes in pregnancy 242 (24.2%)
  Gestational diabetes 232 (23.2%)
  Type 2 diabetes 10 (1.0%)
Antiglycemic drug in pregnancy 70 (7.0%)
  Metformin only 54 (5.4%)
  Insulin only 3 (0.3%)
  Metformin and insulin 13 (1.3%)
Asthma 53 (5.3%)
Hypertension in pregnancy 49 (4.9%)
Group B streptococcus carriage 59 (5.9%)
Thalassemia trait 10 (1.0%)
HIV or Hepatitis B infection 9 (0.9%)
Previous Caesarean 165 (16.5%)
Induction of labor 206 (20.6%)
Outcomes
Caesarean delivery 307 (30.7%)
  Planned 35 (3.5%)
  Unplanned 272 (27.2%)
Birth weight 3.08 ± 0.40
  LGA (Large for gestational age) 99 (9.9%)
  LBW (low birth weight < 2.5 kg) 66 (6.6%)
Estimated delivery blood loss 323 ± 247
 PPH ≥ 500 ml 146 (14.6%)
Neonatal admission (n = 998) 54 (5.4%)
Cord artery blood pH (n = 979) 7.30 ± 0.07
 pH < 7.1 15 (1.5%)
Cord artery blood base excess (n = 969) -4.03 ± 3.41
 BE ≤ -12 24 (2.4%)
Apgar score at 1 min (median [IQR]) (n = 998) 9 [9-9]
 Apgar score at 1 min ≤ 3 2 (0.2%)
Apgar score at 5 min (median [IQR]) (n = 998) 10 [10-10]
 Apgar score at 5 min ≤ 6 1 (0.1%)
  1. Values are stated as mean ± standard deviation, median [interquartile range] or n (%). Analysis by t test for continuous data, Mann–Whitney U test for non-parametric data and Chi Square test for categoric variable