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Table 5 Hazard ratio (HR) estimate independent variables using AG, PWP-TT, PWP-GT, Frailty Model

From: Exploring and modeling recurrent birth events in Ethiopia: EMDHS 2019

Characteristics AG model PWP-TT model PWP-GT model Frailty Model
  HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
Age of mothers at first birth
  < 20 (ref.) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
  20–34 0.713 (0.614,0.828) 1.052(0.933,1.188) 0.852(0.733,0.992) 0.730(0.620,0.828)
  35–49 0.050 (0.006,0.090) 0.384(0.053,2.794) 0.189(0.00,9.024) 0.725(0.626,0.849)
Mother’s current marital status
  Married(ref.) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
  Widowed 1.140(0.834,1.540) 1.059(0.822,1.363) 0.911(0.658,1.263) 0.977(0.705,1.356)
  Divorced 1.440(0.720,2.860) 1.063(0.613,1.843) 1.243(0.692,2.234) 1.527(0.829,2.816)
Place of delivery
  Home(ref.) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
  Health sector 0.886(0.768,0.997) 0.712(0.907, 1.165) 0.970(0.837,1.223) 0.935(0.805,1.087)
Residence
  Urban(ref.) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
  Rural 1.020(0.836,1.230) 0.939(0.792,1.113) 0.885(0.706,0.995) 1.011(0.824,1.240)
Mother’s education level
  No education(ref.) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
  Primary 1.210(1.010,1.460) 1.047(0.913,1.200) 1.049(0.885,1.245) 0.853(0.713,1.019)
  Secondary and above  0.989(0.730,1.340) 0.960(0.769,1.204) 0.899(0.752, 1.076) 0.892(0.710,1.130)
Husband/partner’s education level
  Primary(ref.) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
  Secondary and above 1.200(0.945, 1.520) 0.953(0.795,1.142) 0.977 (0.825, 1.157) 1.210(0.976,1.501)
Region
  Tigray(ref.) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
  Afar 0.657 (0.438,0.987) 1.061(0.768,1.467) 0.960(0.640,1.442) 0.717(0.475,1.083)
  Amhara 0.768(0.541,1.090) 1.147(0.858,1.532) 0.998(0.692,1.437) 0.848(0.585,1.230)
  Oromia 0.736(0.543,0.997) 1.074(0.830,1.389) 0.985(0.720,1.348) 0.782(0.567,1.080)
  Somali 0.850(0.598,1.210) 1.091(0.776,1.534) 0.888(0.593,1.329) 0.814(0.542,1.222)
  Benishangul 0.833(0.614,1.130) 1.056(0.808,1.380) 0.957(0.694,1.320) 0.799(0.576,1.108)
  SNNPR 0.942(0.698,1.270) 1.145(0.882,1.488) 1.296(0.943,1.781) 0.982(0.713,1.353)
  Gambela 0.771(0.554,1.070) 0.995(0.759,1.304) 0.904(0.650,1.258) 0.753(0.537,1.055)
  Harari 0.775(0.554,1.090) 1.013(0.772,1.330) 1.050(0.750,1.469) 0.780(0.555,1.100)
  Addis Ababa 0.716(0.490,1.050) 1.055(0.802,1.386) 1.029(0.725,1.461) 0.749(0.521,1.076)
  Dire Dawa 0.820(0.567,1.190) 1.136(0.848,1.521) 1.066(0.739,1.538) 0.757(0.521,1.099)
Religion
  Orthodox(ref.) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
  Protestant 1.230(0.971,1.560) 1.003(0.837,1.203) 1.078(0.857,1.358) 1.141(0.904,1.441)
  Muslim 1.260(1.010,1.580) 1.016(0.861,1.199) 1.056(0.855,1.305) 1.210(0.976,1.501)
  Catholic,traditional +  1.03(0.586,1.810) 0.834(0.553,1.257) 0.864(0.528,1.413) 1.047(0.638,1.719)
Household size
  1–4 (small)(ref.) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
  5–9 (medium) 3.110(2.49,3.880) 1.914(1.539,2.381) 1.804(1.455,2.237) 3.183(2.605,3.889)
  10 and more (Large) 2.660(1.870,3.770) 1.813(1.293,2.541) 1.880(1.352,2.613) 2.718(1.960,3.770)
Household wealth index
  Poorest(ref.) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
  Poorer 0.957(0.778,1.180) 0.953(0.795,1.143) 0.838(0.682,1.030) 0.904(0.732,1.116)
  Middle 0.845(0.683,1.050) 0.827(0.688,0.994) 0.675(0.546,0.834) 0.776(0.625,0.965)
  Richer 0.950(0.751,1.200) 1.068(0.878,1.298) 0.859(0.683,1.081) 0.892(0.705,1.128)
  Richest 1.070(0.830,1.380) 0.962(0.767,1.205) 0.941(0.730,1.212) 1.067(0.822,1.385)
Sex of child
  Male(ref.) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
  Female 0.853(0.776,0.938) 0.836(0.755,0.926) 0.835(0.739,0.944) 0.911(0.805,1.031)
Child is alive
  Yes(ref.) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
  No 0.783(0.631,0.971) 0.705(0.533,0.934) 0.673(0.514,0.881) 0.681(0.522,0.889)
  Frailty Variance     0.148
  1. Key:- HR Hazard Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, Ref. Reference