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Table 4 Association between changes in selected indicators and changes in maternal mortality (average change from 2006 to 2010 to 2011–2015)

From: Maternal mortality in the Middle East and North Africa region – how could countries move towards obstetric transition stage 5?

Change in indicator Change in Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) per 100,000 live births
  Number of countries with Pearson Correlation
  available data Coefficient (p-value)
GDP (US$) * 22 −0.24 (0.27)
Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel 11 −0.29 (0.38)
Contraceptive use among married women 15–49 years, any method 9 0.07 (0.86)
Contraceptive use among married women 15–49 years, modern methods 9 − 0.34 (0.37)
Adolescent birth rate 7 0.90 (0.005)
Antenatal care coverage (At least one visit) 12 0.11 (0.74)
Antenatal care coverage (At least four visits) 7 0.24 (0.61)
Unmet need for family planning, total 4 −0.02 (0.98)
Unmet need for family planning, spacing 4 −0.47 (0.53)
Unmet need for family planning, limiting 4 0.25 (0.75)
Gender Parity Index in primary school enrolment 17 −0.51 (0.04)
Gender Parity Index in secondary school enrolment 17 −0.20 (0.44)
Gender Parity Index in tertiary level school enrolment 16 −0.21 (0.43)
Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector 8 0.26 (0.53)
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament 19 0.00 (0.99)
Nursing and midwifery personnel 20 0.14 (0.56)
Medical doctors 21 0.02 (0.92)
Motor vehicle ownership 21 −0.14 (0.54)