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Table 3 Association between selected indicators and MMR based on average values reported during 2011–2015 in countries in different stages

From: Maternal mortality in the Middle East and North Africa region – how could countries move towards obstetric transition stage 5?

  Stage II
Countries
(n = 4)
Stage III
Countries
(n = 8)
Stages IV&V
Countries
(n = 11)
  Correlation coefficient
(P-value)
Correlation coefficient
(P-value)
Correlation coefficient
(P-value)
GDP (US$) a −0.95 (0.05) −0.65 (0.08) − 0.74 (0.008)
Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel −0.55 (0.20) − 0.32 (0.68)
Contraceptive use among married women 15–49 years, any method − 0.68 (0.09) 0.68 (0.52)
Contraceptive use among married women 15–49 years, modern methods − 0.42 (0.35) 0.94 (0.20)
Adolescent birth rate 0.76 (0.08)
Antenatal care coverage (At least one visit) −0.99 (0.008) −0.35 (0.45) 0.57 (0.43)
Antenatal care coverage (At least four visits) 0.68 −0.72 (0.07) 0.59 (0.60)
Unmet need for family planning, total   0.71 (0.11) −0.17 (0.89)
Unmet need for family planning, spacing   0.69 (0.13) −0.85 (0.36)
Unmet need for family planning, limiting   0.69 (0.13) 0.32 (0.79)
Gender Parity Index in primary school enrolment −0.95 (0.20) −0.89 (0.007) 0.11 (0.81)
Gender Parity Index in secondary school enrolment −0.99 (0.07) − 0.80 (0.03) 0.20 (0.64)
Gender Parity Index in tertiary level school enrolment −0.96 (0.17) − 0.51 (0.31) − 0.29 (0.45)
Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector − 0.21 (0.79) 0.36 (0.55)
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament −0.28 (0.72) − 0.15 (0.72) − 0.49 (0.15)
Nursing and midwifery personnel − 0.93 (0.06) − 0.76 (0.03) −0.72 (0.02)
Medical doctors −0.99 (0.003) −0.50 (0.20) − 0.63 (0.05)
Motor vehicle ownership −0.86 (0.14) − 0.54 (0.16) −0.68 (0.02)
Motorization rate 2014–15 0.99 (0.09) −0.52 (0.23) −0.70 (0.02)
  1. a Log-transformed values