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Table 1 Participant disability and birth history details

From: Barriers to and facilitators of effective communication in perinatal care: a qualitative study of the experiences of birthing people with sensory, intellectual, and/or developmental disabilities

Pseudonym Disability (self-reported identity or diagnosis) Assistive device, communication aid, and/or service use Number of children birtheda Type and place of birth (most recent) Primary perinatal care provider(s)b (most recent)
Ava Sensory (Deaf) ASL interpreters 4 Cesarean, hospital Obstetrician
Corey IDD (autistic) + Physical (Ehlers-Danlos syndrome) Cane, walker, wheelchair 1 Vaginal, hospital Obstetrician
Crystal IDD (cognitive delay) 4 Vaginal, hospital Midwife
Danielle IDD (chromosomal abnormality) 2 Vaginal, hospital Obstetrician
Emilie Sensory (hearing loss in one ear) 2 Vaginal, home Midwife
Garima IDD 3 Vaginal, hospital Midwife, obstetrician
Heidi IDD 4 Cesarean, hospital Obstetrician
Jasmine IDD (fetal alcohol spectrum disorder [FASD]) Assistive communication technologies (Scribe, Kurzweil) 1 Vaginal, hospital Obstetrician
Laura IDD (chromosomal abnormality) + Physical (scoliosis) 2 Vaginal, hospital Nurse practitioner, obstetrician
Leah IDD (mild intellectual disability) + Sensory (blind in one eye) 4 Vaginal, hospital Obstetrician
Mackenzie Sensory (Deaf) ASL interpreters 3 Cesarean, hospital Midwife, obstetrician
Maria IDD (multiple mild intellectual disabilities) 3 Vaginal, hospital Obstetrician
Robyn Sensory (Deaf, Usher syndrome) Cane (in crowds), ASL interpreters, video relay service 3 Cesarean, hospital Obstetrician
Shannon Sensory (Deaf) Hearing aids, ASL interpreters 1 Vaginal, hospital Nurse practitioner, family physician
Siobhan Sensory (blind) White cane, screen-reader 4 Vaginal, home Midwife
Tala Sensory (severe hearing loss) + IDD (developmental disability) Hearing aids 1 Vaginal, hospital Obstetrician
Zahra Sensory (blind) White cane, assistive communication technologies 1 Vaginal, hospital Obstetrician
  1. aTwo participants’ children have since died (1 was stillborn; 1 died within a week of being born)
  2. bSome participants had more than one primary perinatal care provider or shared care due to where they lived (e.g., rural or small town) and/or the nature of their pregnancy (e.g., if complications arose, if they had twins)