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Table 1 Maternal and infant characteristics comparison between the GDM and non-GDM groups (N = 54)

From: Influences of gestational diabetes mellitus on the oral microbiota in offspring from birth to 1 month old

  GDM (N = 20) Non-GDM (N = 34) p value
Maternal characteristics
 Age at delivery, year 32.6 ± 4.3 30.5 ± 3.4 0.052
 Pre-pregnancy BMI, kg/m2 23.3 ± 2.9 21.8 ± 3.5 0.109
 Gestational weight gain, kg 12.5 ± 4.0 13.7 ± 4.8 0.366
 Delivery mode    0.600
 Vaginal 14 (70.0) 26 (76.5)  
 Cesarean 6 (30.0) 8 (23.5)  
 Fasting glucose, mg/dL 5.1 ± 0.9 4.3 ± 0.3 0.005
 OGTT-1 h, mg/dL 9.9 ± 2.2 7.8 ± 1.3 0.002
 OGTT-2 h, mg/dL 8.0 ± 2.2 6.4 ± 1.0 0.011
Infant characteristics at birth
 Sex, Male/female 8/12 19/15 0.260
 Gestational age, week 39.2 ± 0.8 39.5 ± 1.0 0.167
 Birth weight, kg 3.2 ± 0.5 3.2 ± 0.4 0.810
 Birth length, cm 49.7 ± 1.8 50.1 ± 1.3 0.386
Infant characteristics at 1 month
 Age at collection of oral sample, days 31.4 ± 2.8 30.8 ± 1.4 0.419
 Feeding practices    0.335
 Breastfeeding 11 (55.0) 25 (73.5)  
 Mixed 7 (35.0) 8 (23.5)  
 Formula 1 (5.0) 1 (2.9)  
 Missing 1 (5.0) 0 (0)  
 Use of probiotics 1 (5.0) 1 (1.6) 1.000
 Weight, kg 4.3 ± 0.6 4.4 ± 0.5 0.572
 Length, cm 54.4 ± 2.1 55.0 ± 1.8 0.282
  1. Data are shown as means (SD) or n (%). Significant differences in maternal and infant characteristics between the two groups are highlighted in bold
  2. Abbreviations: BMI Body mass index, GDM Gestational diabetes mellitus, OGTT Oral glucose tolerance test