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Table 2 Associations between total cholesterol intake per day and GDM

From: Dietary cholesterol and egg intake are associated with the risk of gestational diabetes: a prospective study from Southwest China

  Continuous variable (each additional 100 mg/d) Quartile of total cholesterol intake (mg/d) P for trend
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
  OR 95%CI OR 95%CI OR 95%CI OR 95%CI OR 95%CI  
Median, mg/d 332.0 103.0 268.0 394.0 571.5 -
Model 1a 1.08 1.03-1.14 1.00 - 1.39 1.04-1.87 1.48 1.11-1.99 1.55 1.15-2.07 0.004
Model 2b 1.07 1.02-1.13 1.00 - 1.39 1.03-1.88 1.40 1.04-1.89 1.48 1.10-2.00 0.015
Model 2 plus nutrients c
 Saturated fat, unsaturated fat 1.07 1.01-1.13 1.00 - 1.37 1.01-1.86 1.37 1.00-1.87 1.42 1.02-1.98 0.049
 Animal protein 1.10 1.03-1.18 1.00 - 1.43 1.05-1.96 1.45 1.04-2.00 1.61 1.11-2.34 0.019
 Fibre 1.07 1.02-1.13 1.00 - 1.40 1.03-1.89 1.40 1.04-1.90 1.49 1.10-2.01 0.014
 All previous nutrients 1.10 1.02-1.17 1.00 - 1.42 1.04-1.94 1.42 1.02-1.97 1.59 1.09-2.32 0.024
Model 2 plus cholesterol-containing foods d
 Eggs 1.01 0.92-1.11 1.00 - 1.26 0.91-1.73 1.13 0.77-1.64 1.05 0.66-1.66 0.941
 Red meats 1.08 1.02-1.14 1.00 - 1.39 1.02-1.88 1.41 1.04-1.91 1.51 1.11-2.07 0.013
 Poultry 1.08 1.02-1.14 1.00 - 1.38 1.02-1.87 1.41 1.04-1.91 1.52 1.12-2.06 0.010
 Fish/shellfish 1.07 1.02-1.13 1.00 - 1.39 1.03-1.89 1.40 1.04-1.90 1.48 1.09-2.02 0.018
 Total dairy products 1.07 1.01-1.12 1.00 - 1.38 1.02-1.86 1.37 1.01-1.86 1.44 1.06-1.96 0.031
 Animal organs 1.07 1.02-1.13 1.00 - 1.37 1.01-1.85 1.38 1.02-1.87 1.46 1.08-1.98 0.019
Model 2 plus plasma lipid profiles (mmol/L) e
 TG 1.08 1.02-1.14 1.00 - 1.41 1.03-1.92 1.37 1.00-1.87 1.54 1.10-2.14 0.021
 TC 1.08 1.02-1.14 1.00 - 1.40 1.03-1.91 1.38 1.01-1.88 1.49 1.07-2.08 0.029
 LDL-C 1.08 1.02-1.15 1.00 - 1.41 1.04-1.92 1.39 1.02-1.91 1.53 1.10-2.13 0.019
 HDL-C 1.08 1.02-1.14 1.00 - 1.40 1.03-1.91 1.38 1.01-1.89 1.50 1.08-2.09 0.027
 All previous measurements 1.08 1.01-1.14 1.00 - 1.40 1.03-1.91 1.36 1.00-1.86 1.51 1.08-2.11 0.028
  1. TG triglyceride, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, GDM gestational diabetes mellitus
  2. a Crude model
  3. b Adjusted for energy intake, age, prepregnancy BMI, education, income of family, parity, family history of diabetes, smoking before pregnancy, alcohol consumption before pregnancy, physical activity, dietary glycaemic load, weight gain from pregnancy to OGTT
  4. c Nutrients correlated with dietary cholesterol (saturated fat, unsaturated fat, trans fat, animal protein and fibre) were adjusted individually or in combination, in addition to Model 2 covariates
  5. d To determine if certain cholesterol-containing foods were major determinants for the associations, eggs, red meat, poultry, fish and shellfish, total dairy products and edible offal were adjusted individually in addition to Model 2 covariates
  6. e To determine whether the effect of total cholesterol on GDM is related to the increase of plasma lipid profiles, the concentrations of plasma TG, TC, LDL-C and HDL-C were further adjusted individually or in combination in addition to Model 2 covariates