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Table 3 Crude and sequentially adjusted associations of maternal age with adverse pregnancy outcomes in all women (N = 8509) and among black women only (N = 4393)

From: Birth outcomes across the spectrum of maternal age: dissecting aging effect versus confounding by social and medical determinants

Maternal Age All Women Black Women Only
Crude OR Adjusted ORa Crude OR Adjusted ORa
Spontaneous Preterm Birth
 20–29 years (ref) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  < 20 years 1.11 (0.92–1.34) 0.93 (0.76–1.13) 1.12 (0.87–1.45) 0.88 (0.67–1.16)
 30–39 years 1.08 (0.95–1.21) 1.30 (1.14–1.49) 1.11 (0.94–1.32) 1.42 (1.18–1.71)
 40+ years 1.08 (0.81–1.44) 1.39 (1.03–1.88) 1.02 (0.70–1.47) 1.37 (0.93–2.02)
Cesarean Section
 20–29 years (ref) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  < 20 years 0.60 (0.50–0.72) 0.62 (0.51–0.74) 0.59 (0.46–0.75) 0.61 (0.47–0.79)
 30–39 years 1.77 (1.60–1.95) 1.68 (1.51–1.87) 1.68 (1.47–1.93) 1.64 (1.41–1.92)
 40+ years 2.84 (2.27–3.56) 2.58 (2.03–3.27) 2.52 (1.90–3.34) 2.42 (1.79–3.28)
Low Birth Weight
 20–29 years (ref) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  < 20 years 1.14 (0.97–1.35) 0.92 (0.77–1.10) 1.17 (0.94–1.46) 0.91 (0.72–1.16)
 30–39 years 1.15 (1.04–1.28) 1.36 (1.21–1.53) 1.19 (1.03–1.37) 1.58 (1.34–1.87)
 40+ years 1.19 (0.93–1.53) 1.42 (1.09–1.85) 1.20 (0.88–1.62) 1.66 (1.19–2.32)
  1. a Covariates include: sociodemographic factors (maternal race, parity, education, marital status, receipt of public assistance, yearly income, nativity), biomedical conditions (obesity, hypertensive disorders and diabetes mellitus) and behavioral factors (including positive factors such as consistent intake of multivitamin supplements, support from father of baby, support from family, and negative factors such as major stress in pregnancy, cigarette smoking and alcohol intake)