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Table 1 Characteristics of women with GDM in lifestyle intervention group and insulin therapy group

From: The effects of insulin therapy on maternal blood pressure and weight in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

  Full cohort After PSM
  Lifestyle intervention group Insulin therapy group P Lifestyle intervention group Insulin therapy group P
 n 616 92   58 58  
 Age (years) 29.5 ± 5.0 30.7 ± 4.1 0.125 31.4 ± 6.4 30.7 ± 4.1 0.656
 Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) 23.9 ± 4.0 24.8 ± 4.3 0.152 25.1 ± 1.9 24.6 ± 4.3 0.820
Family history of Hypertension 46 (10.0) 10 (11.6) 0.649 8 (13.7) 7 (12.1) 0.724
 Family history of DM 9 (6.3) 8 (25.0) 0.001 4 (6.9) 5 (8.6) 0.624
At the first visit
 SBP (mmHg) 118 ± 11 119 ± 12 0.627 121 ± 10 117 ± 12 0.328
 DBP(mmHg) 71 ± 8 70 ± 7 0.630 69 ± 8 70 ± 7 0.382
 Creatin (μmol/L) 39.65 ± 6.37 40.71 ± 5.82 0.668 53.00 ± 19.03 40.71 ± 5.82 0.326
 UA (mmol/L) 225.65 ± 43.08 236.14 ± 90.23 0.660 266.33 ± 29.73 236.14 ± 90.23 0.597
 eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) 180.6 ± 31.7 171.2 ± 24.8 0.443 145.4 ± 39.7 170.2 ± 24.8 0.281
 ALT (units/L) 19.0 (13.0 - 34.0) 23.0 (15.0 - 80.0) 0.257 16.0 (11.0 - 70.0) 23.0 (15.0 - 80.0) 0.667
 AST (units/L) 18.5 (15.0 - 22.5) 17.0 (16.0- 20.0) 0.727 26.0 (14.0 - 33.0) 17.0 (16.0 - 20.0) 0.517
At performing OGTT
 OGTT time (week) 25.8 ± 2.9 24.3 ± 4.8 0.042 26.4 ± 4.8 24.3 ± 4.8 0.185
 BMI (kg/m2) 26.5 ± 3.7 27.6 ± 4.4 0.213 27.3 ± 2.0 27.6 ± 4.4 0.802
 SBP (mmHg) 120 ± 12 124 ± 11 0.083 126 ± 11 125 ± 11 0.693
 DBP (mmHg) 69 ± 9 70 ± 8 0.525 74 ± 8 71 ± 10 0.241
 FBG (mmol/L) 4.70 ± 0.73 5.61 ± 1.48 < 0.001 3.75 ± 0.21 5.60 ± 1.48 < 0.001
 1 h BG (mmol/L) 9.64 ± 1.63 11.32 ± 2.20 < 0.001 9.55 ± 1.35 11.32 ± 2.20 0.011
 2 h BG (mmol/L) 8.29 ± 1.55 9.61 ± 2.49 0.002 8.67 ± 0.87 9.61 ± 2.48 0.047
 HbA1c (%) 5.2 ± 0.4 5.6 ± 0.6 < 0.001 5.2 ± 0.3 5.5 ± 0.6 0.027
 HbA1c (mmol/mol) 33 38   33 37  
 Area under BG curve 16.14 ± 1.93 18.86 ± 3.80 < 0.001 16.02 ± 1.14 18.86 ± 3.80 0.025
 HOMA - IR* 2.54 (1.66 - 3.45) 2.30 (1.66 - 3.63) 0.716 1.77 (1.09 - 2.95) 3.00 (1.53 - 3.63) 0.179
 HOMA - β* 295.85 (162.47 - 663.78) 94.90 (52.05 - 259.19) < 0.001 331.28 (80.94 - 823.42) 94.90 (52.05 - 259.19) < 0.001
 CH (mmol/L) 5.50 ± 1.26 5.47 ± 1.30 0.896 5.56 ± 1.44 5.47 ± 1.30 0.832
 TG (mmol/L) 3.18 ± 1.76 3.05 ± 1.82 0.667 2.93 ± 1.30 3.05 ± 1.82 0.845
 HDL (mmol/L) 1.73 ± 0.45 1.67 ± 0.42 0.521 1.58 ± 0.21 1.67 ± 0.42 0.481
 LDL (mmol/L) 2.93 ± 1.04 2.96 ± 1.02 0.897 3.12 ± 0.97 2.95 ± 1.02 0.651
One week before delivery
Delivery time 38.6 ± 1.5 39.1 ± 1.3 0.170 39.0 ± 0.9 39.2 ± 1.3 0.664
intervention time frame (weeks) 12.6 ± 3.1 12.3 ± 1.6 0.628 12.6 ± 4.5 12.3 ± 1.6 0.809
Insulin dose NA 39 (27 - 56)   NA 39 (27 - 56)  
 BMI (kg/m2) 28.4 ± 3.5 30.9 ± 4.5 0.020 28.8 ± 2.2 30.4 ± 4.7 0.030
 SBP (mmHg) 124 ± 13 131 ± 13 0.005 124 ± 9 131 ± 12 0.043
 DBP (mmHg) 74 ± 9 80 ± 8 0.007 71 ± 10 80 ± 11 0.011
 FBG (mmol/L) 4.66 ± 0.33 4.39 ± 0.23 0.912 4.51 ± 0.20 4.82 ± 0.42 0.711
 1 h BG (mmol/L) 7.61 ± 1.09 7.14 ± 1.23 0.175 7.39 ± 1.47 7.50 ± 1.22 0.845
 2 h BG (mmol/L) 6.79 ± 1.22 6.98 ± 1.31 0.614 7.24 ± 1.54 6.73 ± 0.75 0.306
HbA1c (%) 5.4 ± 0.4 5.2 ± 0.6 0.566 5.3 ± 0.4 5.4 ± 1.3 0.699
 HbA1c (mmol/mol) 36 33   34 37  
Total GWG (kg)   0.068    0.223
  Adequate 225 (42.1) 12 (16.7)   21 (38.2) 9 (16.7)  
  Inadequate 171 (31.3) 24 (33.3)   16 (29.1) 18 (33.3)  
  Exceesive 150 (27.5) 36 (50.0)   18 (32.7) 27 (50.0)  
Rate of weight gain after OGTT (kg week-1) 0.345    0.563
  Adequate 84 (28.6) 12 (11.8)   18 (32.7) 16 (30.2)  
  Inadequate 72 (24.5) 15 (29.4)   14 (25.5) 6 (11.3)  
  Exceesive 138 (46.9) 60 (58.8)   23 (41.8) 31 (58.5)  
Gestational hypertension 72 (11.7) 20 (31.0) 0.001 12 (17.2) 26 (38.3) 0.028
 Caesarean section 280 (68.3) 46 (63.9) 0.602 28 (48.3) 32 (56.5) 0.449
 Fetal sex (female) 310 (49.1) 22 (37.9) 0.260 28 (50.9) 21 (37.5) 0.321
 Preterm 14 (4.7) 2 (6.3) 0.779 3 (5.5) 3 (5.3) 0.932
 Newborn weight (g) 3484.5 ± 488.7 3592.1 ± 638.5 0.260 3607.5 ± 392.1 3592.1 ± 638.5 0.938
 Macrosomia 62 (14.3) 10 (15.2) 0.796 9 (16.3) 8 (15.1) 0.901
  1. Data are mean ± SD, median (interquartile range) or n (%), Log transformed for t test*
  2. GDM gestational diabetes mellitus; Cr creatinine; UA uric acid; ALT alanine aminotransferase; AST aspartate aminotransferase; GWG gestational weight gain; SBP systolic blood pressure; DBP diastolic blood pressure; eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate; PSM propensity score matching
  3. PSM to even the variables of age, pre-pregnancy BMI, time (weeks) and BP at GDM diagnosis, family history of diabetes and hypertension, match tolerance was 0.02