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Table 2 Mixed effects of maternal and community-level factors and home births

From: Individual and community-level factors associated with home birth: a mixed effects regression analysis of 2017–2018 Benin demographic and health survey

Independent variables Model 0 Model I Model II Model III
aOR[95%CI] aOR[95%CI] aOR[95%CI] aOR[95%CI]
Fixed effect results
Individual-level factors
  Age
    ≤ 19   Ref   Ref
   20–34   1.08[0.74–1.58]   1.10[0.75–1.61]
    ≥ 35   1.12[0.72–1.75]   1.19[0.76–1.85]
  Wealth status
   Poorest   Ref   Ref
   Poorer   0.65***[0.53–0.81]   0.68***[0.55–0.84]
   Middle   0.53***[0.42–0.69]   0.61***[0.47–0.78]
   Richer   0.29***[0.20–0.41]   0.42***[0.29–0.61]
   Richest   0.22***[0.01–0.07]   0.07***[0.02–0.24]
  Religion
   Religious   Ref   Ref
   Non-religious   1.38*[1.02–1.86]   1.33[0.98–1.79]
  Education
   Without formal education   Ref   Ref
   Formal education   0.63**[0.48–0.82]   0.71*[0.54–0.93]
  Marital status
   Married   Ref   Ref
   Cohabiting   1.49**[1.14–1.93]   1.57**[1.21–2.04]
  Total children ever born
   1–2   Ref   Ref
   3–4   1.16[0.93–1.45]   1.19[0.95–1.49]
    ≥ 5   1.28*[1.00–1.62]   1.29*[1.01–1.66]
  Occupation
   Not working   Ref   Ref
   Working   0.92[0.73–1.15]   0.92[0.74–1.15]
  Partner’s education
   Without formal education   Ref   Ref
   Formal education   0.57***[0.44–0.72]   0.62***[0.49–0.79]
  Access to mass media
   No   Ref   Ref
   Yes   0.78*[0.60–0.99]   0.78*[0.60–0.99]
  Getting medical help for self: getting permission to go
   Big problem   Ref   Ref
   Not a big problem   0.59***[0.47–0.73]   0.62***[0.50–0.77]
  Getting medical help for self: getting money needed for treatment
   Big problem   Ref   Ref
   Not a big problem   1.12[0.89–1.41]   1.08[0.86–1.36]
  Getting medical help for self: distance to health facility
   Big problem   Ref   Ref
   Not a big problem   0.84[0.67–1.06]   0.92[0.74–1.15]
  ANC visit
   Below recommended   Ref   Ref
   Recommended   0.32***[0.17–0.60]   0.33**[0.18–0.63]
  Health decision making
   Alone   Ref   Ref
   Respondent and partner   1.03[0.72–1.47]   0.98[0.68–1.40]
   Others   1.39[0.99–1.95]   1.29[0.92--1.80]
Community-level factors
  Residence
   Urban    Ref Ref
   Rural    0.97[0.62–1.50] 0.94[0.63–1.41]
  Sex of Household Head
   Male    Ref Ref
   Female    0.89[0.66–1.20] 0.85[0.62–1.15]
  Community literacy level
   Low    Ref Ref
   Medium    0.29***[0.19–0.45] 0.37***[0.24–0.55]
   High    0.12***[0.71–0.22] 0.24***[0.14–0.41]
  Community socioeconomic status
   Low    Ref Ref
   Medium    0.28***[0.16–0.49] 0.37***[0.22–0.63]
   High    0.08***[0.05–0.15] 0.25***[0.14–0.46]
Random effect results
 PSU Variance[95%CI] 5.45[4.24–7.00] 2.19[1.66–2.88] 2.25[1.73–2.93] 1.73[1.30–2.30]
 ICC 0.62 0.40 0.41 0.34
 LR Test 1653.79*** 498.95*** 682.12*** 399.42***
 Wald X2 Ref 278.62*** 222.05*** 375.94***
Model specification analysis
 Log likelihood −2412.8451 − 2230.3118 − 2288.2112 −2178.3287
 AIC 4829.69 4504.624 4592.422 4412.657
 BIC 4843.603 4657.666 4648.074 4607.439
  1. aOR adjusted Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval in square brackets, Ref Reference Category; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001