Skip to main content

Table 1 Maternal, pregnancy and infant characteristics of study participants

From: Timing of initiation of breastfeeding and its determinants at a tertiary hospital in Ghana: a cross-sectional study

Maternal Characteristics
  n (%)   n (%)
 Age in years mean (SD) 29.0 (6.4) Educational status  
 Ethnicity   None 37 (9.8)
 Others 101 (26.9) Primary 21 (5.6)
 Akan 275 (73.1) Secondary 271 (72.1)
 Marital Status   Tertiary 47 (12.5)
 Single 50 (13.3) Employment status  
 Married 326 (86.7) Unemployed 65 (17.3)
 Residence   Employed 311 (82.7)
 Rural 5 (1.33) First Baby  
 Urban 371 (98.7) No 262 (69.7)
 Insurance type   Yes 114 (30.3)
 Private 2 (0.5) Religion  
 Government 374 (99.5) Moslem 63 (16.8)
   Christian 313 (83.2)
Pregnancy Characteristics
  n (%)   n (%)
 Medical conditions   Mode of delivery  
 No 332 (88.3) Vaginal 245 (65.2)
 Yes 44 (11.7) Caesarean Section 131 (34.8)
 Postpartum complications   Previously breastfed  
 No 364 (96.8) No 263 (69.9)
 Yes 12 (3.2) Yes 113 (30.1)
 ANC visits mean (SD) 7.0 (3.1) Parity median (IQR) 3.0 (1.0–4.0)
Newborn Characteristics
  n (%)   n (%)
 Maturity   Skin to Skin contact done  
 Preterm 27 (7.2) No 219 (58.2)
 Term 349 (92.8) Yes 157 (41.8)
 Gender   Where baby was kept
 Female 177 (47.1) Roomed In 216 (57.5)
 Male 199 (52.9) Nursery 94 (25.0)
 Prelacteals given   MBU 66 (17.5)
 No 266 (70.7) Birth Weight (kgs) mean (SD) 3.0 (0.6)
 Yes 110 (29.3)   
 First Min. APGAR   Fifth Min. APGAR  
 0–3 16 (4.3) 0–3 4 (1.1)
 4–7 246 (65.4) 4–7 41 (10.9)
 8–10 114 (30.3) 8–10 331 (88.0)