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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population in 2000, 2005, 2011 and 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys

From: Trends of infant mortality and its determinants in Ethiopia: mixed-effect binary logistic regression and multivariate decomposition analysis

Variables EDHS 2000 (n = 12,260) EDHS 2005 (n = 11,163) EDHS 2011(n = 11,872) EDHS 2016 (n = 11,022)
Weighted frequency (%) Weighted frequency (%) Weighted frequency (%) Weighted frequency (%)
Region
 Tigray 788 (6.4) 698 (6.3) 753 (6.3) 716 (6.5)
 Afar 126 (1.0) 107 (1.0) 121 (1.0) 114 (1.0)
 Amhara 3202 (26.1) 2621 (23.5) 2656 (22.4) 2072 (18.8)
 Oromia 4999 (40.9) 4411 (39.5) 5014 (42.2) 4851 (44.2)
 Somali 142 (1.2) 477 (4.3) 364 (3.1) 507 (4.6)
 Benishangul 124 (1.0) 105 (0.9) 140 (1.2) 122 (1.1)
 SNNPRs 2602 (21.2) 2500 (22.4) 2494 (21.1) 2296 (20.8)
 Gambella 29 (0.2) 31 (0.3) 40 (0.3) 27 (0.2)
 Harari 25 (0.2) 22 (0.2) 29 (0.2) 26 (0.2)
 Addis Ababa 182 (1.5) 153 (1.3) 221 (1.9) 244 (2.2)
 Dire Dawa 40 (0.3) 37 (0.3) 39 (0.3) 47 (0.4)
Place of residence
 Urban 1276 (10.4) 815 (7.3) 1528 (12.9) 1215 (11.0)
 Rural 10,984 (89.6) 10,348 (92.7) 10,344 (87.1) 9807 (89.0)
Religion
 Orthodox 6042 (49.3) 4674 (41.9) 4519 (38.1) 3772 (34.2)
 Catholic 81 (0.7) 121 (1.1) 108 (0.9) 103 (0.9)
 Protestant 1959 (16.0) 2217 (19.9) 2758 (23.2) 2329 (21.1)
 Muslim 3713 (30.3) 3875 (34.7) 4214 (35.5) 4561 (41.4)
 Others 465 (3.8) 275 (2.5) 271 (2.3) 257 (2.3)
Age of women (in years)
 < 20 557 (4.6) 575 (5.2) 491 (4.1) 378 (3.4)
 20–29 6047(49.3) 5415 (48.5) 6158 (51.9) 5421 (49.2)
 30–39 4272 (34.8) 4019 (36.0) 4166 (35.1) 4261 (38.7)
 ≥ 40 1384 (11.3) 1154 (10.3) 1057 (8.9) 962 (8.7)
Maternal education
 No education 10,062 (82.1) 8838 (79.2) 8227 (69.3) 7284 (66.1)
 Primary 1597 (13.0) 1855 (16.6) 3211 (27.0) 2950 (26.8)
 Secondary and higher 601 (4.9) 470 (4.2) 434 (3.7) 788 (7.1)
Husband education
 No 7771 (63.4) 6508 (58.3) 4866 (47.0) 4116 (37.3)
 Primary 3026 (24.7) 3350 (30.0) 583 (4.9) 798 (7.30
 Secondary and higher 1463 (11.9) 1305 (11.7) 6422 (54.1) 6108 (55.4)
Sex of household head
 Male 10,589 (86.4) 9943 (89.1) 10,106 (85.1) 9494 (86.1)
 Female 1671 (13.6) 1220 (10.9) 1766 (14.9) 1528 (13.9)
Maternal BMI (in Kg/m2)
 <  18.5 2764 (22.5) 1109 (9.9) 2439 (20.6) 2098 (19.0)
 18.5–24.9 9112 (74.3) 4146 (37.1) 8678 (73.1) 7953 (72.2)
 ≥ 25 384 (3.1) 5908 (53.0) 755 (6.3) 971 (8.8)
Number of ANC visit during pregnancy
 No visit 5789 (72.7) 5225 (46.8) 4516 (57.1) 2818 (37.1)
 1–4 visits 1573 (19.8) 4447 (39.8) 2451 (31.0) 3536 (46.6)
 > 4 visits 604 (7.5) 1491 (13.4) 940 (1.9) 1236 (16.3)
Child size at birth
 Small 4115 (33.6) 3557 (31.9) 3519 (29.6) 2957 (26.8)
 Average 4376 (35.7) 4462 (40.0) 4548 (38.3) 4580 (41.6)
 Large 3769 (30.7) 3144 (28.1) 3805 (32.1) 3485 (31.6)
Place of delivery
 Home 11,625 (94.8) 10,502 (94.1) 10,627 (89.5) 7997 (72.6)
 Health facility 635 (5.2) 661 (5.9) 1245 (10.5) 3025 (27.4)
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal 12,160 (99.3) 11,050 (99.0) 11,697(98.5) 10,810 (98.1)
 Caesarean section 100 (0.7) 113 (1.0) 175 (1.5) 212 (1.9)
Type of birth
 Single 11,994 (97.8) 10,963 (98.2) 11,597 (97.7) 10,730 (97.4)
 Multiple 266 (2.2) 200 (1.8) 275 (2.3) 292 (2.6)
Sex of infant
 Male 6288 (51.3) 5723 (51.3) 6168 (52.0) 5724 (51.9)
 Female 5972 (48.7) 5440 (48.7) 5704 (48.0) 5298 (48.1)
Ever had termination of pregnancy
 No 10,488 (85.5) 10,267 (92.0) 10,639 (89.6) 10,056 (91.2)
 Yes 1772 (14.5) 896 (8.0) 1233 (10.4) 966 (8.8)
Stunting
 Normal 7644 (62.4) 9149 (82.0) 6893 (58.1) 6624 (60.1)
 moderately stunted 2292 (18.7) 980 (8.8) 2258 (19.0) 1802 (16.3)
 Severely stunted 2324 (18.9) 1034 (9.2) 2721 (22.9) 2596 (23.6)
Underweight
 Normal 7937 (64.7) 9487 (85.0) 7288 (61.4) 6998 (63.5)
 Moderately underweight 2837 (23.1) 1192 (10.7) 2615 (22.0) 2146 (19.5)
 Severely underweight 1486 (12.2) 484 (4.3) 1969 (16.6) 1879 (17.0)
Wasting
 Normal 11,091 (90.5) 10,701 (95.7) 9896 (83.4) 8931 (81.0)
 Moderately wasted 1025 (8.3) 368 (3.5) 758 (6.4) 686 (6.2)
 Severely wasted 144 (1.2) 94 (0.8) 1218 (10.2) 1406 (12.8)
Media exposure
 No 8932 (72.9) 7017 (62.9) 6988 (58.9) 7375 (66.9)
 Yes 3328 (27.1) 4146 (37.1) 4884 (41.1) 3647 (33.1)
Preceding birth interval
 <  24 months 1950 (15.9) 2246 (20.1) 1963 (16.5) 1942 (17.6)
 ≥ 24 months 10,310 (84.1) 8917 (79.9) 9909 (83.5) 9080 (82.4)
Parity
 1–3 5338 (43.6) 4576 (41.0) 5295 (44.6) 4836 (43.9)
 4–6 4038 (32.9) 3962 (35.5) 4014 (33.8) 3732 (33.9)
 > 6 2884 (23.5) 2625 (23.5) 2564 (21.6) 2454 (22.2)