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Table 3 Absolute and relative frequencies of informed consent and informal coercion by delivery mode or intervention

From: Informal coercion during childbirth: risk factors and prevalence estimates from a nationwide survey of women in Switzerland

  Aspects of informed consent Forms of informal coercion
Information Time Agreement Opposition Intimidation Manipulation
Planned cesarean section 427 (90.7%) 427 (90.7%) 451 (95.8%) 35 (7.4%) 142 (30.1%) 25 (5.3%)
Unplanned cesarean section 384 (76.2%) 322 (63.9%) 481 (95.4%) 43 (8.5%) 111 (22.0%) 36 (7.1%)
Emergency cesarean section 199 (58.5%) 98 (28.8%) 311 (91.5%) 20 (5.9%) 126 (37.1%) 13 (3.8%)
Forceps or vacuum birth 213 (30.7%) 143 (20.6%) 616 (88.9%) 22 (3.2%) 114 (16.5%) 27 (3.9%)
Induction of labor 1136 (74.2%) 1122 (73.3%) 1384 (90.5%) 152 (9.9%) 407 (26.6%) 151 (9.9%)
Amniotomy 713 (52.5%) 754 (55.5%) 1277 (94.0%) 32 (2.4%) 59 (4.3%) 50 (3.7%)
Episiotomy 208 (30.0%) 119 (17.2%) 530 (76.5%) 45 (6.5%) 89 (12.8%) 38 (5.5%)