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Table 2 Comparison of delivery mode and pregnancy outcomes over time

From: Socio-demographic characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women who delivered prior to and after the termination of the one-child policy in China: a comparative study

Variable 2012
(N = 3480)
2014
(N = 4044)
2016
(N = 4194)
OR1 and 95% CI OR2 and 95% CI
n % n % n %
For all childbearing women
 Delivery mode Vaginal 1962 56.38 2424 59.94 2444 58.27 0.86 (0.79–0.95) 0.93 (0.85–1.01)
CS 1518 43.62 1620 40.06 1750 41.73
 Vaginal delivery Instrumental 75 3.82 130 5.36 120 4.91 1.43 (1.07–1.91) 1.30 (0.98–1.75)
Natural 1887 96.18 2294 94.64 2324 95.09
 CS Emergency 719 47.36 903 55.74 690 39.43 1.40 (1.22–1.61) 0.72 (0.63–0.83)
Elective 799 52.64 717 44.26 1060 60.57
Pregnancy complications 854 24.54 1062 26.26 1326 31.62 1.10 (0.99–1.22) 1.42 (1.29–1.57)
Multiple births 71 2.04 102 2.52 211 5.03 1.15 (0.81–1.62) 2.92 (2.19–3.89)
Stillbirth 63 1.81 35 0.82 41 0.98 0.47 (0.31–0.72) 0.54 (0.36–0.80)
LBW 239 6.87 297 7.34 424 10.11 1.08 (0.90–1.28) 1.53 (1.29–1.80)
Preterm birth 349 10.03 390 9.64 570 13.59 0.96 (0.82–1.12) 1.41 (1.23–1.63)
BDs 59 1.70 33 0.82 41 0.98 0.48 (0.31–0.73) 0.57 (0.38–0.85)
Missing 18 / 11 / 0 /   
Sex of infant Girl 1647 47.33 1950 48.22 2017 48.09 1.03 (0.94–1.13) 1.03 (0.94–1.13)
Boy 1817 52.21 2086 51.58 2164 51.60
Missing 16 / 8 / 13 /
For primipara (parity < 1)
 Delivery mode Vaginal 373 44.40 659 45.42 1006 48.83 0.96 (0.81–1.14) 0.84 (0.71–0.98)
CS 467 55.60 792 54.58 1054 51.17
 Vaginal delivery Instrumental 8 2.14 11 1.67 20 1.99 0.77 (0.31–1.94) 0.93 (0.40–2.21)
Natural 365 97.86 648 98.33 986 98.01
 CS Emergency 195 41.76 372 46.97 345 32.37 1.24 (0.98–1.56) 0.68 (0.54–0.85)
Elective 272 58.24 420 53.03 709 67.27
Pregnancy complications 158 18.81 277 19.09 551 26.75 1.02 (0.82–1.27) 1.58 (1.29–1.92)
Multiple births 24 2.86 31 2.14 67 3.25 0.74 (0.43–1.27) 1.14 (0.71–1.84)
Stillbirth 21 2.50 16 1.10 20 0.97 0.44 (0.23–0.84) 0.38 (0.21–0.71)
LBW 77 9.17 113 7.79 192 9.32 0.84 (0.62–1.13) 1.02 (0.77–1.34)
Preterm birth 113 13.45 167 11.51 277 13.45 0.84 (0.65–1.08) 1.00 (0.79–1.26)
BDs 14 1.67 14 0.96 19 0.92 0.57 (0.27–1.20) 0.55 (0.27–1.09)
Missing 7 0.83 5 0.34 0 /
Sex of infant Girl 390 46.43 694 47.83 942 45.73 1.05 (0.89–1.25) 0.97 (0.82–1.14)
Boy 445 52.98 754 51.96 1110 53.88
Missing 5 0.60 3 0.21 8 0.39
For multipara (parity ≥ 1)
 Delivery mode Vaginal 1589 60.19 1765 68.07 1438 67.39 0.71 (0.63–0.80) 0.73 (0.65–0.83)
CS 1051 39.81 828 31.93 696 32.61
 Vaginal delivery Instrumental 67 4.22 119 6.74 100 6.95 1.64 (1.21–2.23) 1.70 (1.24–2.33)
Natural 1522 95.78 1646 93.26 1338 93.05
 CS Emergency 524 49.86 531 64.13 345 49.57 1.80 (1.49–2.17) 0.99 (0.82–1.20)
Elective 527 50.14 297 35.87 351 50.43
Pregnancy complications 696 26.36 785 30.27 775 36.32 1.21 (1.08–1.37) 1.59 (1.41–1.80)
Multiple births 47 1.78 71 2.74 144 6.75 1.55 (1.07–2.25) 3.99 (2.86–5.58)
Stillbirth 42 1.59 19 0.73 21 0.98 0.46 (0.27–0.79) 0.62 (0.36–1.04)
LBW 162 6.14 184 7.10 232 10.87 1.17 (0.94–1.45) 1.87 (1.51–2.30)
Preterm birth 236 8.94 223 8.60 293 13.73 0.96 (0.79–1.16) 1.62 (1.35–1.95)
BDs 45 1.70 19 0.73 22 1.03 0.42 (0.25–0.73) 0.60 (0.36–1.00)
Missing 11 0.42 6 0.23 0 /
Sex of infant Girl 1257 47.61 1256 48.44 1075 50.37 1.03 (0.92–1.15) 1.11 (0.99–1.25)
Boy 1372 51.97 1332 51.37 1054 49.39
Missing 11 0.42 5 0.19 5 0.23