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Table 2 Description and measurement of independent variables

From: Prevalence and associated factors of adolescent pregnancy (15–19 years) in East Africa: a multilevel analysis

Independent variables and their description/categorization
Individual level variables
 Age Group Current age of the women and re-coded in to two categories with values of “0” for 15–17, “1” for 18–19.
 Wealth Index The datasets contained wealth index that was created using principal components analysis coded as “poorest”, “poorer”, “Middle”, “Richer”, and “Richest in the EDHS data set.” For this study we recoded it in to three categories as “poor” (includes the poorest and the poorer categories), “middle”, and “rich” (includes the richer and the richest categories)
 Occupation Re-coded in two categories with a value of “0” for not working, and “1” for working.
 Media exposure A composite variable obtained by combining whether a respondent reads newspaper/magazine, listen to radio, and watch television with a value of “0” if a women were not exposed to at least one of the three medias, and “1” if a woman has access/exposure to at least one of the three medias.
 Educational status This is the minimum educational level a woman achieved and re-coded in to three groups with a value of “0” for no education, “1” for primary education, and “2” for secondary and above (combining secondary and higher education categories together).
 Marital status This was the current marital status of women and recoded in two categories with a value of “0” for unmarried (includes those who were never in union, divorced, widowed, and separated), and “1” for “married” (includes those living with partner and those who are married)
 Sex of household The variable sex of household head was recorded as male and female in the dataset and we used without change.
 Relation to house hold head The variable relation to house hold head was recoded as “0” for head/spouse, “1” for Daughter and “2” for relative or other based on DHS guide.
 Age at first sex The variable age at first sex was recoded as “0” for women who initiate sex at age of 5–14 “1” for initiation of sex at 15–17 “2” for women who initiate sex at the age of 18–19.
 Contraceptive usage Recoded in to two categories with value of 0 for “no” if a women don’t use any of the contraceptive methods, and 1 for “Yes” if a women use any of the contraceptive methods. of either of or combination of the following methods(female sterilization, male sterilization, contraceptive pill, intrauterine contraceptive device, injectable, implants, female condom, male condom, diaphragm, contraceptive foam and contraceptive jelly, lactational amenorrhea method, standard days method, and respondent-mentioned other modern contraceptive methods (including cervical cap, contraceptive sponge,)
Community level variables
 Community of poverty level Measured by proportion of households in the poor (combination of poorer and poorest) wealth quintile derived from data on wealth index. Then it was categorized based on national median value as: low (communities in which < 50% of women had poor socioeconomic status) and high (communities in which ≥50% of women had poor socioeconomic status) poverty level.
 Community educational level Measured by the proportion of educated women (combination of primary, secondary and higher education). It was categorized based on national media value as: low (community in which > 50% of women had no education) and high (community with > 50% of women had utilization of any of the contraceptive methods).
 Community contraceptive utilization Measured by using the proportion of women who used any or the combination of the contraceptives. It was categorized based on national media value as: low (community in which > 50% of women didn’t use any contraceptive methods) and high (community with > 50% of women had education attainment).
 Type of place of residence The variable place of residence recorded as rural and urban in the dataset was used without change.