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Table 1 Bivariate comparison of women who experience their first miscarriage versus live birtha

From: Prevalence and clinical, social, and health care predictors of miscarriage

Characteristic Miscarriage (n = 11,231) Live birth (n = 68,747) Std. diff.
Mean/proportion ± SD  
Clinical
 Previous c-sectionb 0.12 ± 0.32 0.12 ± 0.32 −0.45
 Diabetesc 0.04 ± 0.20 0.03 ± 0.18 4.44
 Endometriosisc 0.01 ± 0.09 0.01 ± 0.08 3.46
 Hypertensiond 0.03 ± 0.18 0.03 ± 0.17 1.74
 Infertility drug usee 0.04 ± 0.19 0.02 ± 0.15 7.45
 Mood or anxiety disorderse 0.16 ± 0.37 0.12 ± 0.33 11.18
 Substance abusee 0.03 ± 0.17 0.03 ± 0.16 1.53
 Suicide attemptf 0.01 ± 0.10 0.01 ± 0.08 3.98
 Mother’s age at event 28.47 ± 6.82 27.80 ± 5.79 10.58
 Parityb,g
  Nulliparous 0.48 ± 0.50 0.42 ± 0.49 11.54
  Primiparous 0.29 ± 0.45 0.33 ± 0.47 −8.72
  Multiparous 0.23 ± 0.42 0.25 ± 0.43 −3.99
Social
 Mother’s SEFIh 0.23 ± 1.13 0.18 ± 1.11 3.96
 Income assistancei 0.09 ± 0.28 0.10 ± 0.30 4.58
Health care use
 Morbidity (RUB)d 2.30 ± 0.94 2.11 ± 1.00 19.73
 Hospitalization costs (adjusted)d,j 177 ± 1614 84 ± 1070 6.77
 Hospitalization LOS (in days)d 0.17 ± 2.33 0.08 ± 1.31 5.1
 Amb. phys. (FP) costs (adjusted)d,j 140 ± 136 94 ± 103 38.64
 Amb. phys. (FP) visitsd 4.21 ± 4.16 2.88 ± 3.10 36.15
 Any incident psychotropic Rxk 0.06 ± 0.23 0.05 ± 0.22 2.75
 Number of psychotropic Rxk 0.85 ± 4.94 0.66 ± 5.48 3.57
 Psychotropic Rx costs (adjusted)j,k 33 ± 184 26 ± 159 4.27
  1. Std. diff Standardized difference, RUB Resource Utilization Band, SEFI Socioeconomic Factor Index, Amb. phys Ambulatory physician, Rx prescription, LOS Length of stay
  2. Data are presented as means (for continuous variables) or proportions (for binary variables) ± SD
  3. aSample excludes women not covered for at least 2 years prior to event; bSince 1984; cIn the 3 years before event; dIn the year before event; eIn the 2 years before event; fIn the 5 years before event; g0 = nulliparous, 1 = primiparous, 2 = multiparous; hAt time of event; iFor at least one month in the year before event; jIn 2010 dollars; kOver a 1-year period starting 2 years before the event date