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Table 3 Multilevel multivariable logistic regression model analysis result of recommended antenatal care visit in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2006 to 2018

From: Determinants of completing recommended antenatal care utilization in sub-Saharan from 2006 to 2018: evidence from 36 countries using Demographic and Health Surveys

Variable Null Model
AOR(95%CI)
Model I
AOR(95%CI)
Model II
AOR(95%CI)
Model III
AOR(95%CI)
Africa Region
 Southern   1   1
 Central   0.33 (0.31,0.34)   0.50 (0.48,0.53)*
 Eastern   0.37 (0.35,0.39)   0.46 (0.44,0.48)*
 Western   0.36 (0.34,0.37)   0.72 (0.68,0.75)*
Residence
 Rural   1   1
 Urban   2.21 (2.17,2.25)   1.35 (1.31,1.38)*
Age group
 15–24    1 1
 25–34    1.27 (1.24,1.30) 1.24 (1.21,1.27)*
 35–46    1.49 (1.44,1.53) 1.43 (1.38,1.48)*
Literacy rate
 Cannot read and write    1 1
 Can read and write    0.93 (0.91,0.96) 1.008 (0.98,1.03)
Maternal education
 No education    1 1
 Primary education    1.37 (1.33,1.41) 1.45 (1.41,1.49)*
 Secondary and above    2.14 (2.06,2.23) 2.02 (1.94,2.10)*
Husband education
 No education    1 1
 Primary education    1.15 (1.12,1.18) 1.29 (1.26,1.32)*
 Secondary and above    1.67 (1.63,1.72) 1.70 (1.65,1.74)*
Maternal Occupation
 Had no occupation    1 1
 Had occupation    1.11 (1.09,1.14) 1.12 (1.09,1.14)*
Women’s health care decision making autonomy
 Women alone    1.17 (1.14,1.20) 1.26 (1.23,1.30)*
 Women and her husband    1.23 (1.21,1.26) 1.32 (1.29,1.35)*
 Husbands alone    1 1
Wealth Index
 Poor    1 1
 Middle    1.11 (1.09,1.14) 1.09 (1.06,1.11)*
 Rich    1.26 (1.23,1.29) 1.13 (1.10,1.16)*
Media Exposed
 No    1 1
 Yes    1.44 (1.41,1.47) 1.33 (1.30,1.36)*
Accessing health care
 Big problem    1 1
 Not big problem    1.22 (1.20,1.25) 1.19 (1.17,1.25)*
Wanted pregnancy
 No    1 1
 Yes    1.19 (1.15,1.24) 1.18 (1.14,1.23)*
Contraceptive use
 No    1 1
 Yes    1.31 (1.28,1.34) 1.34 (1.32,1.37)*
Birth Order     
 1    1 1
 2–4    0.79 (0.77,0.82) 0.78 (0.77,0.82)*
 5+    0.64 (0.61,0.66) 0.66 (0.63,0.68)*
Community variance (SE) 0.131 (0.112,0.153) 0.099 (0.084,0.117) 0.05 (0.042,0.060) 0.041 (0.034,0.049)
ICC% 38 (33,44) 29 (24,34) 15 (12,17) 12 (10,14)
PCV% 1 24.42 61.83 68.70
MOR 1.41 (1.37,1.45) 1.34 (1.31,1.38) 1.23 (1.21,1.26) 1.21 (1.19,1.23)
LL − 180,239 − 174,792 − 143,943 −142,542
Deviance 360,478 349,584 287,886 285,084
AIC 360,483 349,596 287,927 285,133
BIC 360,504 549,658 288,134 285,381
  1. * = significant at alpha 5%