Skip to main content

Table 1 Maternal anthropometric, social, obstetrical and psychological characteristics in 434 women with and without probable PPD according to EPDS score cut-off of > 10 (N, %, mean and SD)

From: Cross-sectional association between vitamin B12 status and probable postpartum depression in Indian women

Variable Group P-value
Women with probable postpartum
depression (n = 217)
Women without probable postpartum depression (n = 217)
Anthropometric characteristics
 Age (years)
  Mean (SD) 26.22 (4.30) 25.56 (4.08) 0.102^
  Min – Max 18–40 19–36
 Age
   < =25 yrs 111 (51.2) 118 (54.4) 0.785@
  26–30 yrs 77 (35.5) 73 (33.6)
   > 30 yrs 29 (13.4) 26 (12.0)
 BMI (kg/m2)
  Mean (SD) 25.08 (4.55) 25.61 (4.57) 0.225^
  Min – Max 13.33–39.12 13.90–40.50
 BMI (kg/m2)
   < =18.5 12 (5.5) 6 (2.8) 0.523@
   > 18.5–24.9 109 (50.2) 109 (50.2)
   > 24.9–29.9 60 (27.7) 62 (28.6)
   > 30 36 (16.6) 40 (18.4)
Socio-demographic characteristics
 Family structure
  Extended 149 (68.7) 150 (69.1) 0.917@
  Nuclear 68 (31.3) 67 (30.8)  
 SESa
  Lower 4 (1.8) 9 (4.2) 0.002@
  Upper lower 112 (51.6) 142 (65.4)
  Lower middle 54 (24.9) 31 (14.3)
  Upper middle 47 (21.7) 32 (14.8)
  Upper 3 (1.4)
 Total children
  1 116 (53.5) 148 (68.2) 0.002@
   > =2 101 (46.5) 69 (31.8)
 Marital dissatisfaction
  No 153 (70.5) 213 (98.2) < 0.001@
  Yes 64 (29.5) 4 (1.8)
 Any death in the family in the last one year
  No 213 (98.2) 215 (99.1) 0.411@
  Yes 4 (1.8) 2 (0.9)
 Breast feeding
  Yes 214 (98.6) 215 (99.1) 0.653@
  No 3 (1.4) 2 (0.9)
 Sleeping hours after delivery
   < 6 h/day 100 (46.1) 98 (45.2) 0.847@
   > 6 h/day 117 (53.9) 119 (54.8)
 Are you happy with the baby gender
  Yes 46 (21.2) 24 (11.1) 0.004@
  No 171 (78.8) 193 (88.9)
 Family members happy with the sex of the child
  No 55 (25.4) 49 (22.6) 0.500@
  Yes 162 (74.6) 168 (77.4)
Obstetrics characteristics
 Parity
  Primi 102 (47.0) 120 (55.3) 0.084@
  Multi 115 (53.0) 97 (44.7)  
 History of miscarriage/still birth
  No 165 (76.0) 165 (76.0) 0.087@
  Miscarriage 51 (23.5) 45 (20.7)
  Still birth 1 (0.5) 7 (3.2)
 Pregnancy planning
  Unplanned 108 (49.8) 66 (30.4) < 0.001@
  Planned 109 (50.2) 151 (69.6)  
 Delivery type
  Vaginal 135 (62.2) 163 (75.1) 0.014@
  Vaginal assisted 17 (7.8) 10 (4.6)
  Caesarean 65 (30.0) 44 (20.3)
 Difficulty in delivery
  Yes 86 (39.6) 77 (35.5) 0.372@
  No 131 (60.4) 140 (64.5)
 Perinatal complications
  Yes 18 (8.3) 18 (8.3) 0.999@
  No 199 (91.7) 199 (91.7)  
Nutritional characteristics
 Diet
  Veg 11 (5.1) 13 (6.0) 0.674@
  Mixed diet 206 (94.9) 204 (94.0)
 Milk
  Seldom 7 (3.2) 9 (4.2) < 0.001@
  Once per day 86 (39.8) 41 (18.9)
  2–3 times per day 109 (50.5) 148 (68.2)
   > 4 times per day 14 (6.5) 19 (8.8)
 Curd/Butter milk
  Seldom 178 (82.0) 196 (90.3) 0.002@
  1–2 times per week 11 (5.1) 13 (6.0)
  3–4 times per week 11 (5.1) 6 (2.8)
  Once a day 17 (7.8) 2 (0.9)
 Fishes
  Seldom 65 (30.4) 64 (29.6) 0.808@
  1–2 times per week 83 (38.8) 87 (40.3)
  3–4 times per week 54 (25.2) 57 (26.4)
  Once a day 12 (5.6) 8 (3.7)
 Meat
  Seldom 85 (39.7) 74 (34.3) 0.012
  1–2 times per week 88 (41.1) 88 (40.7)
  3–4 times per week 25 (11.7) 47 (21.8)
  Once a day 16 (7.5) 7 (3.2)
 Egg
  Seldom 38 (17.7) 32 (14.8) < 0.001@
  1–2 times per week 36 (16.7) 100 (46.3)
  3–4 times per week 55 (25.6) 68 (31.5)
  Once a day 86 (40.0) 16 (7.4)
 Term baby
  Pre-term 34 (15.7) 24 (11.1) 0.158@
  Term 183 (84.3) 193 (88.9)
 Gender of baby
  Male 121 (55.8) 133 (61.3) 0.242@
  Female 96 (44.2) 84 (38.7)
  1. aBased on Kuppusamy’s Socioeconomic scale [21]
  2. @ P-value based on Chi-square test
  3. ^ P-value based on Mann-Whitney U test