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Table 1 baseline characteristics and outcomes of the four groups

From: Maternal obesity influences birth weight more than gestational diabetes

Variable *Non-GDM nonobese
(n = 180)
GDM nonobese
(n = 96)
Obese non-GDM
(n = 84)
Obese GDM
(n = 170)
Age (years)
Mean (SD)
28.6 (6.07) 31.7 (6.44) 31.3 (5.78) 33.69 (5.76)
P value - 0.000 0.001 0.000
BMI (kg/m2)
Mean (SD)
24.2 (3.62) 26.0 (3.01) 34.5 (4.21) 36.2 (5.07)
P value - 0.000 0.000 0.000
Birth weight (gm)
Mean (SD)
2859 (0.47) 2933 (0.57) 3003 (0.58) 3150 (0.47)
P value - 0.333 0.062 0.000
Macrosomia
Numbers (%)
0 (0) 3 (3.1) 5 (6.0) 7 (4.1)
P value - 0.048 0.013 0.022
Odd ratio (OR) - 7.22 14.05 9.37
CI - 0.37-141.52 0.78–252.5 0.5-176.43
Caesarian delivery
Numbers (%)
48 (26.7) 42 (43.8) 48 (57.1) 85 (50)
P value - 0.014 0 0
OR - 2.15 3.69 2.79
CI - 1.16–3.98 1.97–6.91 1.653–4.722
NICU Admission
Numbers (%)
25 (13.9) 29 (30.2) 20 (23.8) 44 (25.9)
P value - 0.006 0.073 0.016
OR - 2.68 1.97 2.168
CI - 1.30–5.52 0.931–4.18 1.143–4.115
Low Apgar Score
Numbers (%)
3 (1.7) 5 (5.2) 1 (1.2) 16 (9.4)
P value - 0.171 1 0.006
OR - 2.82 1 1.858
CI - 0.56–14.05 0.09–11.2 1.415–2.440
  1. All P values and ORs were compared with the reference group (non-GDM and nonobese women). * reference group. OR Odd ratio; CI confidence interval. Macrosomia, defined as a birth weight of 4000 g or more. Low Apgar score, defined as an Apgar score of 7 or less at 5 minutes