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Table 1 Participant characteristics by weight gain level in prospective cohort study on guideline-discordant gestational weight gain

From: Gestational weight gain outside the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations: novel psychological and behavioural factors associated with inadequate or excess weight gain in a prospective cohort study

Characteristic Inadequate weight gain
n = 154
Appropriate weight gain
n = 279
Excess weight gain
n = 537
p-value
Maternal age, years [Mean (SD)] 30.8 (4.5) 30.9 (5.0) 30.2 (4.9) 0.097
Gestational age at recruitment, weeks [Mean (SD)] 14.8 (3.3) 14.4 (3.4) 15.1 (3.5) 0.018
Race [n (%)]        0.011
 White 110 (71.4) 199 (71.3) 427 (79.5)  
 Non-white 43 (27.9) 80 (28.7) 108 (20.1)  
 NR/UKN 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.4)  
Marital status [n (%)]        0.997
 Married, common-law, or living with a partner 143 (92.9) 259 (92.8) 496 (92.4)  
 Single, divorced, or widowed 11 (7.1) 20 (7.2) 39 (7.3)  
 NR/UKN 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.4)  
Education [n (%)]        0.592
 Community college/technical school or lower 69 (44.8) 112 (40.1) 231 (43.0)  
 Undergraduate university or higher 85 (55.2) 167 (59.9) 305 (56.8)  
 NR/UKN 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.2)  
Household income [n (%)]        0.450
  < $40,000 28 (18.2) 45 (16.1) 79 (14.7)  
 $40,000 – 79,999 39 (25.3) 64 (22.9) 147 (27.4)  
  > =$80,000 75 (48.7) 149 (53.4) 251 (46.7)  
 NR or prefer not to answer 12 (7.8) 21 (7.5) 60 (11.2)  
Smoking [n (%)]        0.015
 None 128 (83.1) 235 (84.2) 414 (77.1)  
 Before this pregnancy 12 (7.8) 27 (9.7) 85 (15.8)  
 During this pregnancy 14 (9.1) 15 (5.4) 38 (7.1)  
 NR/UKN 0 (0.0) 2 (0.7) 0 (0.0)  
Chronic health conditions [n (%)]        0.685
 No 109 (70.8) 208 (74.6) 390 (72.6)  
 Yes 45 (29.2) 71 (25.4) 147 (27.4)  
Parity [n (%)]        0.115
 0 72 (46.8) 138 (49.5) 296 (55.1)  
 1+ 81 (52.6) 139 (49.8) 239 (44.5)  
 NR/UKN 1 (0.6) 2 (0.7) 2 (0.4)  
Prepregnancy BMI [n (%)]        < 0.001
 Underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) 6 (3.9) 15 (5.4) 8 (1.5)  
 Normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2) 101 (65.6) 174 (62.4) 218 (40.6)  
 Overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2) 10 (6.5) 46 (16.5) 176 (32.8)  
 Obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) 37 (24.0) 44 (15.8) 135 (25.1)  
Care provider at centre of recruitment [n (%)]        0.189
 Obstetrician 38 (24.7) 74 (26.5) 106 (19.7)  
 Midwife 18 (11.7) 40 (14.3) 77 (14.3)  
 Family physician 98 (63.6) 165 (59.1) 354 (65.9)  
  1. BMI body mass index, NR not reported, UKN unknown
  2. Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding
  3. The descriptive and univariable multinomial logistic regression analyses were complete case analyses