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Table 2 Adjusted OR/RR and confidence interval of factors significantly associated with birth spacing

From: Factors associated with short birth interval in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Category / subcategoryAuthor / year of publicationFactorOutcome (length of birth interval in months)Adjusted effect sizeConfidence interval 95%
Age
 At first pregnancy (years)de Jonge 201418.3 vs 18.6< 330.950.92–0.98
 At delivery of the last child (years)Hailu 201617–24 vs > 34< 360.980.36–2.66
 25–29 vs > 34 0.90.40–2.0
 30–34 vs > 34 2.581.08–5.15
de Jonge 201422 vs 22.88< 331.111.08–1.15
 Of the mother (years)aChirwa 201415–19 vs 45–49< 252.511.56–4.04
 20–24 vs 45–49 1.791.27–2.52
 25–29 vs 45–49 1.30.93–1.84
 30–34 vs 45–49 1.250.89–1.76
 35–39 vs 45–49 1.050.74–1.5
 40–44 vs 45–49 0.990.69–1.44
 Of the mother (years)bBegna 201320–24 vs 25–29< 361.360.53–3.48
 30–34 vs 25–29 0.680.39–1.17
 35–39 vs 25–29 0.310.17–0.6
 40–44 vs 25–29 0.220.10–0.49
 45–49 vs 25–29 0.390.15–1.01
Muganyizi 201330 vs 15–29< 24 or > 6010.5–1.7
Exavery 201215–19 vs 45–49< 3313.659.63–19.35
 20–24 vs 45–49 4.33.16–5.86
 25–29 vs 45–49 2.41.77–3.26
 30–34 vs 45–49 2.071.52–2.8
 35–39 vs 45–49 1.641.21–2.24
 40–44 vs 45–49 1.310.95–1.83
Ismail 2008One-year increase in age< 240.860.8–0.92
Ngianga-Bakwin 2005< 21 vs > 21 and < 35< 240.580.55–0.62
 > 35 vs > 21 and < 35 0.670.62–0.72
 Of the woman’s own mother at first pregnancy (years)Atkin 199211–17 vs > 17< 245.1Not provided
Breastfeeding
 Duration (months)Hailu 201612–23 vs > 23< 3660.1931.61–114.59
Begna 2013<  25 vs > 24< 3630.816.97–136.19
Ismail 2008< 12 vs > 11< 246.183.59–10.62
 TypeChirwa 2014Exclusive breastfeeding vs Mixed< 251.081–1.17
 Never breastfeeding vs Mixed 1.070.99–1.15
Ngianga-Bakwin 2005Exclusive breastfeeding vs No breastfeeding< 240.670.58–0.78
 Mixed feeding vs No breastfeeding 0.860.82–0.90
Contraception
 MethodChirwa 2014Not using contraception vs Modern method< 250.970.85–1.08
Ngianga-Bakwin 2005Using injections vs Using other methods< 241.231.1–1.38
Atkin 1992Postpartum IUD: No/Yes< 2426.34Not provided
 UseHailu 2016No vs Yes< 363.011.68–5.39
Muganyizi 2013No vs Yes< 24 or > 6010.6–1.8
Begna 2013No vs Yes< 365.914.02–8.69
Ismail 2008No vs Yes< 243.952.21–7.05
Ngianga-Bakwin 2005No vs Yes< 240.880.82–0.93
Todd 2008Prior contraceptive use: Yes/NoLonger mean birth interval (2.21 ± 0.79 Vs 2.01 ± 0.87 years)1.251.12–1.40
Education of the mother
 Hailu 2016No formal education vs Has formal education< 363.41.8–6.43
Chirwa 2014No education vs Secondary or higher< 251.080.97–1.19
 Primary education vs Secondary and higher 1.061–1.16
de Jonge 2014Secondary or above vs None or primary education< 331.261.09–1.45
Begna 2013No formal education vs Formal education< 361.891.15–3.37
Muganyizi 2013Primary vs No education< 24 or > 6010.2–4.6
 Secondary or above vs No education 1.60.3–7.3
Exavery 2012Never been to school vs Secondary/higher< 331.271.01–1.60
 Primary vs Secondary/higher 1.090.87–1.37
Ngianga-Bakwin 2005No education vs Secondary education or higher< 241.161.06–1.26
 Primary education vs Secondary education or higher 1.111.03–1.20
Sirivong 2003Literate vs IlliterateBirth spacing (length not specified)0.270.08–0.84
Marital status
 Muganyizi 2013Not in marriage vs In marriage< 24 or > 600.90.4–2.1
Exavery 2012Previously married (widowed or divorced) vs Married< 330.560.48–0.66
 Single vs Married 0.640.57–0.73
Atkin 1992Women who were in a legal or consensual union at 5 months: Yes / No< 246.9Not provided
Miscellaneous
 InterventionAbdullah 2018Intervention: integrated post-partum family planning and maternal and newborn health. Control: maternal and newborn health only.< 240.810.69–0.95
 Occupational groupde Jonge 2014Tea garden resident: Yes vs No< 331.411.07–1.87
 Religion Other vs Muslim 0.680.53–0.87
 Time periodNgianga-Bakwin 20051998–2001 vs 1991–1993< 240.90.84–0.95
Occupation
 HusbandBegna 2013Daily worker vs Animal husbandry< 362.191.01–4.79
 Farmers vs Animal husbandry 0.490.24–1
 Merchant vs Animal husbandry 0.720.36–1.43
 Others vs Animal husbandry 1.170.47–5.92
 MotherHailu 2016Farmer vs Others< 362.680.31–23.23
 Housewife vs Others 10.17–5.86
 Merchant vs Others 1.460.16–13.24
Muganyizi 2013Employment Business vs Salary employment< 24 or > 601.10.6–2.1
 Employment Housewife/others vs Salary employment 1.60.7–3.4
Parity (children)
 de Jonge 2014> 3 vs 1< 330.280.19–0.41
 2 vs 1 0.530.44–0.63
 3 vs 1 0.380.29–0.51
Muganyizi 2013> 3 vs 2< 24 or > 601.80.9–3.7
 3 vs 2 0.90.5–1.5
Begna 20132 vs > 4< 363.731.50–9.25
 3&4 vs > 4 2.691.23–5.92
Exavery 2012> 3 vs 2< 332.542.25–2.85
 3 vs 2 1.291.19–1.40
Ismail 2008Parity (no further explanation)< 241.461.22–1.76
Previous pregnancy
 Outcomede Jonge 2014Adverse outcome of any previous pregnancy: Yes / No< 332.11.83–2.40
Muganyizi 2013Immediate past pregnancy loss: Yes / No< 24 or > 602.51.3–4.7
Exavery 2012Birth: Multiple vs Singleton< 330.740.57–0.96
Ismail 2008History of abortion: Yes vs No< 240.090.02–0.34
 Place of deliveryHailu 2016Health institution vs Home< 361.530.61–3.8
Exavery 2012Elsewhere vs Health facility< 331.851.71–2
 PlannedHailu 2016No vs Yes< 361.440.9–2.61
Sex of the previous child
 Hailu 2016Female vs Male< 366.793.65–12.63
Begna 2013Female vs Male< 361.721.17–2.52
Socioeconomic level
 Household assetscde Jonge 20140–3 vs > 3< 331.421.22–1.65
 IncomeHailu 2016Wealth index: Fourth vs Richest< 363.961.41–11.13
 Wealth index: Middle vs Richest 3.981.39–11.38
 Wealth index: Second vs Richest 6.462.26–8.48
 Wealth index: Poorest vs Richest 14.334.65–44.15
Chirwa 2014Low vs High< 250.980.8–1.01
 Middle vs High 0.860.77–0.94
Ngianga-Bakwin 2005Low vs High< 241.181.10–1.26
 Middle vs High 1.251.17–1.34
 Place of residenceChirwa 2014Rural vs Urban< 251.070.97–1.13
Exavery 2012Rural vs Urban< 331.040.95–1.13
Ngianga-Bakwin 2005Urban vs Rural< 240.850.79–0.9
  1. Significant results are shown in bold
  2. aWhen the study was conducted
  3. bDid not specify a definition of age of the mother
  4. cElectricity, radio/tape recorder, fan, TV, fridge, phone, generator and bicycle