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Table 1 Maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes

From: “INTERGROWTH21st vs customized fetal growth curves in the assessment of the neonatal nutritional status: a retrospective cohort study of gestational diabetes”

VariableValue
Maternal age (years):34.59 (4.7) *
Maternal weight at the beginning of pregnancy (kg):69 (25) **
Maternal height (cm):162.56 cm (6.13) *
Maternal BMI at the beginning of gestation (kg/m2):25.92 kg/m2 (8.62) **
 - Underweight (BMI < 18.5)8 (3.4%) ***
 - Normal BMI (18.5–24.9)94 (40.2%) ***
 - Overweight (BMI 25–29.9)61 (26.1%) ***
 - Obesity (BMI ≥ 30)71 (30.3%) ***
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy11 (4.8%) ***
 - Gestational hypertension5 (2.2%) ***
 - Chronic hypertension5 (2.2%)
 - Preeclampsia1 (0.4%)
Management of gestational diabetes
 glycemic control with diet and exercise151 (65.4%) ***
 Insulin required80 (34.6%) ***
Gestational age at birth (weeks):39 weeks (2) **
 - < 34 weeks5 (2.1%) ***
 - 34–34 + 6 weeks12 (5.1%) ***
 - 37–40 + 6 weeks198 (84.6%) ***
 - ≥ 41 weeks19 (8.1%) ***
Neonatal gender
 - Female102 (43.6%) ***
 - Male132 (56.4%) ***
Birth weight (g)3302 (506.47) *
Birth length (cm)49.68 cm (2.19) *
Apgar score at 1 min
 < 78 (3.5%) ***
 ≥ 7223 (96.5%) ***
Apgar score at 5 min
 < 70
 ≥ 7231 (100%) ***
  1. SD Standard deviation, IQR Interquartile range, BMI Body Mass Index
  2. * Mean and standard deviation; ** Median and interquartile range; *** Absolute frequency and percentage