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Table 2 Socio-demographics and pregnancy-related variables associated with caesarean deliveries (weighted percentages)

From: Trends of caesarean section deliveries in Pakistan: secondary data analysis from Demographic and Health Surveys, 1990–2018

  PDHS 1990–91
(n = 4029)
PDHS 2006–07
(n = 5721)
PDHS 2012–13
(n = 7461)
PDHS 2017–18
(n = 8287)
Rate of caesarean deliveries 3.2% 7.8% 13.6% 19.6%
Socio-demographics
Mother’s age at birth (in years)
 Less than 18 2.4% 3.8% 7.2% 9.3%
 18–20 2.5% 6.6% 11.9% 15.3%
 21–24 4.5% 7.6% 18.9% 21.8%
 More than 24 4.1% 9.3% 27.6% 34.3%
Children’s birth order
 1 6.3% 14.3% 25.5% 27.4%
 2–3 3.6% 10.5% 19.6% 24.2%
 4–5 3.2% 6.1% 10.5% 17.4%
 6 and above 1.2% 2.9% 6.1% 7.0%
Mother’s education
 No education 1.4% 3.9% 7.5% 9.1%
 Primary 5.1% 10.4% 17.1% 18.3%
 Middle 21.3%
 Secondary 10.8% 16.4% 31.5% 28.8%
 Higher 16.9% 25.3% 40.2% 42.9%
Mother’s occupation
 Not working 3.3% 8.8% 18.1% 19.4%
 Unskilled 1.6% 5.1% 11.4% 15.2%
 Skilled 2.3% 4.0% 5.3% 16.0%
 Professional/Technical/ Managerial 11.4% 21.9% 30.0% 39.5%
Wealth index
 Poorest 1.9% 7.5% 6.1%
 Poorer 2.4% 17.1% 9.8%
 Middle 5.6% 21.3% 18.6%
 Richer 11.3% 31.5% 29.0%
 Richest 20.6% 40.2% 40.2%
Type of residence
 Rural 1.2% 5.1% 11.5% 14.4%
 Urban 5.2% 12.8% 25.6% 26.0%
Region
 Baluchistan 0.7% 2.2% 1.7% 5.7%
 Islamabad Capital Territory 28.1% 31.7%
 Punjab 4.8% 11.4% 19.1% 31.0%
 Sindh 3.5% 7.4% 17.4% 27.0%
 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 2.1% 4.4% 5.2% 10.0%
 Gilgit Baltistan 3.6% 12.1%
 AJK 25.4%
 FATA 3.8%
Pregnancy-related variables
Pregnancy complication
 No 9.0% 14.9%
 Yes 17.9% 25.2%
Number of antenatal care visits
 None 1.0% 4.0% 22.1% 1.9%
 1–3 4.6% 11.3% 10.7% 10.9%
 4 and above 8.5% 19.3% 30.1% 31.3%
Place of delivery
 Public 15.9% 21.1% 28.9% 22.5%
 Private 14.8% 21.3% 31.2% 34.9%
Size of the baby at birth
 Below average 13.9% 6.8% 37.9% 20.9%
 Normal 13.0% 8.3% 32.1% 19.4%
Number of children
 1–2 4.9% 12.7% 20.4% 26.3%
 3–4 3.6% 8.0% 13.4% 20.5%
 5 and above 1.7% 2.9% 5.8% 8.7%
Pregnancy ever terminated
 No 9.9% 13.2% 20.9%
 Yes 8.5% 14.5% 21.9%