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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of child-bearing women aged 15–49 years (weighted percentages)

From: Trends of caesarean section deliveries in Pakistan: secondary data analysis from Demographic and Health Surveys, 1990–2018

  PDHS 1990–91
(n = 4029)
PDHS 2006–07
(n = 5721)
PDHS 2012–13
(n = 7461)
PDHS 2017–18
(n = 8287)
n % n % n % n %
Mother’s age at birth (in years)
 Less than 18 1631 40.5 1902 39.6 2025 27.2 2217 26.8
 18–20 807 20.0 1224 25.5 1661 22.3 1801 21.7
 21–24 1056 26.2 556 11.6 2394 32.1 2563 30.9
 More than 24 535 13.3 1120 23.3 1367 18.4 1706 20.6
Mother’s education
 No education 3089 76.7 3811 66.6 4155 55.8 4178 50.4
 Primary 372 9.2 789 13.8 1230 16.5 1101 13.3
 Middle 587 7.9
 Secondary 503 12.5 763 13.3 792 10.6 1747 21.1
 higher 65 1.6 361 6.3 682 9.2 1261 15.2
Mother’s occupation
 Not working 3422 85.0 4092 71.5 5378 72.2 7183 86.7
 Unskilled 64 1.6 158 2.8 938 12.6 46 .6
 Skilled 495 12.3 1364 23.8 990 13.3 806 9.7
 Prof/tech/managerial 45 1.1 106 1.9 140 1.9 249 3.0
Type of residence
 Urban 2011 49.9 1998 34.9 2244 30.1 3738 45.1
 Rural 2018 50.1 3726 65.1 5202 69.9 4549 54.9
Region
 Punjab 1355 33.6 2305 40.3 4180 56.1 1740 21.0
 Sindh 1066 26.5 1626 28.4 1714 23.0 1474 17.8
 KPK 1043 25.9 1113 19.4 1117 15.0 1386 16.7
 Balochistan 565 14.0 680 11.9 348 4.7 1005 12.1
 Gilgit Baltistan 56 0.7 614 7.4
 Islamabad (CT) 31 0.4 546 6.6
 AJK 870 10.5
 FATA 652 7.9
Wealth index
 Poorest 1289 22.5 1698 22.8 1827 22.0
 Poorer 1235 21.6 1544 20.7 1863 22.5
 Middle 1118 19.5 1464 19.7 1622 19.6
 Richer 1064 18.6 1469 19.4 1486 17.9
 Richest 1018 17.8 1272 17.1 1489 18.0