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Table 4 Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis for the association between institutional cesarean section and selected covariates in survey waves 2006, 2011 and 2016

From: Trends and correlates of cesarean section rates over two decades in Nepal

  2006 2011 2016
cOR (CI) aOR (CI) cOR (CI) aOR (CI) cOR (CI) aOR (CI)
Region (Ref: Far-western)
 Eastern 1.88 (0.85–4.19) 1.31 (0.57–3.03) 2.84 (1.41–5.73) ** 1.99 (0.93–4.25) 4.04 (2.35–6.95) *** 3.03 (1.77–5.19) ***
 Central 2.67 (1.42–5.00) ** 1.54 (0.78–3.02) 2.98 (1.53–5.78) ** 2.15 (1.05–4.40) * 4.14 (2.40–7.13) *** 2.58 (1.52–4.40) **
 Western 2.73 (1.35–5.51) ** 1.91 (0.91–4.00) 1.56 (0.76–3.18) 1.38 (0.65–2.90) 4.34 (2.57–7.35) *** 2.91 (1.69–4.99) ***
 Mid-western 1.52 (0.82–2.81) 1.26 (0.58–2.73) 1.21 (0.54–2.67) 1.19 (0.54–2.64) 1.05 (0.53–2.07) 1.07 (0.54–2.12)
Age at first birth (Ref: ≤ 19)
 20–29 1.82 (1.12–2.93) * 1.71 (1.01–2.90) * 1.95 (1.36–2.81) *** 1.62 (1.08–2.43) * 2.12 (1.58–2.84) *** 1.49 (1.09–2.02) *
 30+ 6.04 (1.94–18.8) ** 4.60 (1.70–12.43) ** 5.85 (2.18–15.6) *** 4.99 (1.62–15.38) ** 6.89 (3.36–14.13) *** 4.85 (2.27–10.39) ***
Birth order (Ref: Second +)
 First 2.26 (1.26–4.07) ** 2.01 (1.10–3.68) * 1.15 (0.84–1.58) 0.99 (0.69–1.43) 1.40 (1.05–1.86) * 1.21 (0.88–1.67)
Child size (Ref: Average)
 Large 2.28 (1.12–4.64) * 2.49 (1.41–4.39) ** 1.46 (0.90–2.35) 1.59 (0.95–2.67) 1.54 (1.14–2.08) ** 1.62 (1.22–2.14) **
 Small 1.75 (0.96–3.21) 2.05 (1.02–4.12) * 1.11 (0.59–2.06) 1.17 (0.62–2.20) 1.15 (0.83–1.58) 1.36 (0.97–1.90)
ANC visit (Ref: 3 or less)
 4 and above 1.88 (1.07–3.31) * 1.40 (0.71–2.75) 1.55 (0.94–2.55) 1.35 (0.75–2.45) 1.54 (1.03–2.28) * 1.28 (0.87–1.87)
Occupation (Ref: Not working)
 Working 0.39 (0.24–0.62) *** 0.50 (0.29–0.88) * 0.60 (0.43–0.83) ** 0.81 (0.57–1.17) 0.78 (0.60–1.01) 1.11 (0.83–1.49)
Wealth index (Ref: Poorest)
 Poorer 0.66 (0.24–1.79) 0.65 (0.24–1.77) 0.29 (0.08–0.99) * 0.28 (0.09–0.91) * 1.28 (0.69–2.36) 0.95 (0.51–1.80)
 Middle 0.86 (0.30–2.43) 0.70 (0.24–2.09) 1.56 (0.61–3.97) 1.24 (0.50–3.07) 1.80 (0.98–3.31) 1.28 (0.69–2.36)
 Richer 0.93 (0.36–2.37) 0.68 (0.24–1.91) 1.49 (0.59–3.74) 0.90 (0.33–2.43) 2.04 (1.21–3.45) ** 1.33 (0.77–2.28)
 Richest 2.48 (1.17–5.29) * 1.77 (0.66–4.79) 2.23 (0.90–5.53) 0.98 (0.35–2.78) 6.01 (3.57–10.11) *** 3.85 (2.12–6.98) ***
Education (Ref: No education)
 Primary or less 1.21 (0.66–2.23) 0.92 (0.47–1.80) 1.59 (0.85–2.97) 1.56 (0.80–3.06) 0.93 (0.59–1.47) 0.88 (0.54–1.44)
 Secondary + 1.24 (0.62–2.46) 0.61 (0.33–1.10) 1.77 (1.06–2.96) * 1.31 (0.66–2.57) 1.73 (1.18–2.53) ** 0.94 (0.60–1.47)
Residence (Ref: Rural)
 Urban 1.44 (0.87–2.38) 1.10 (0.63–1.90) 2.31 (1.63–3.26) *** 1.95 (1.34–2.83) *** 1.36 (1.01–1.85) * 0.83 (0.61–1.14)
Place of delivery (Ref: Government sector)
 Private sector 1.00 (0.55–1.81) 1.33 (0.78–2.26) 2.63 (1.87–3.70) *** 2.37 (1.63–3.44) *** 2.42 (1.76–3.32) *** 2.22 (1.62–3.03) ***
  1. Number of cases included in the multivariable model N = 5011 (10 women did not report on ANC visits)
  2. OR adjusted odds ratio (adjusted for all covariates under analysis for each survey round)
  3. CI 95% confidence interval
  4. * = P < 0.05, ** = P < 0.01, *** = P < 0.001