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Table 3 Proportion of institutional-based cesarean section and its association with selected covariates in respective survey waves

From: Trends and correlates of cesarean section rates over two decades in Nepal

  Cesarean section (weighted %)
1996 N = 334 2001 N = 235 2006 N = 854 2011 N = 1682 2016 N = 2485
Age of women
 ≤ 19 4 (13.0) 1 (5.9) 14 (16.0) 10 (6.0) 24 (9.5)
 20–29 25 (10.1) 12 (4.4) 71 (16.1) 143 (12.3) 243 (15.8)
 ≥ 30 5 (10.1) 6 (8.5) 26 (14.4) 61 (18.6) 99 (21.4)
p-value 0.729 0.766 0.896 < 0.01 < 0.01
Religion
 Hindus 31 (11.1) 16 (7.2) 97 (14.9) 189 (13.2) 311 (16.2)
 Non-Hindus 3 (5.9) 3 (10.2) 14 (20.1) 25 (11.8) 55 (17.6)
p-value 0.189 < 0.05 0.489 0.697 0.642
Education
 No education 15 (13.1) 9 (7.8) 21 (13.8) 28 (8.8) 52 (12.1)
 Primary or less 4 (5.9) 1 (2.7) 20 (16.2) 35 (13.3) 46 (11.3)
 Secondary + 15 (9.4) 9 (8.8) 70 (16.5) 151 (14.6) 268 (19.2)
p-value 0.050 0.307 0.750 0.069 < 0.001
Residence
 Rural 18 (9.6) 8 (4.5) 56 (14.0) 100 (10.9) 106 (13.7)
 Urban 16 (11.8) 11 (23.7) 55 (19.1) 114 (22.0) 260 (17.9)
p-value 0.391 < 0.001 0.148 < 0.001 < 0.05
Age at first birth
 ≤ 19 13 (8.8) 5 (4.1) 38 (11.0) 64 (8.7) 119 (10.7)
 20–29 17 (9.8) 13 (10.2) 65 (18.4) 139 (15.7) 228 (20.2)
 ≥ 30 4 (42.6) 1 (53.6) 8 (42.8) 11 (35.8) 19 (45.2)
p-value < 0.01 < 0.001 < 0.01 < 0.001 < 0.001
Birth order
 Second + 13 (7.1) 9 (5.2) 39 (10.5) 107 (12.2) 164 (14.2)
 First 21 (15.3) 10 (11.4) 72 (21.0) 107 (13.8) 202 (18.7)
p-value < 0.01 < 0.05 < 0.01 0.382 < 0.05
Occupation
 Not working 15 (8.7) 7 (10.0) 60 (24.0) 102 (16.5) 164 (18.4)
 Working 19 (11.7) 12 (0.67) 51 (11.0) 112 (10.6) 202 (14.9)
p-value 0.098 0.121 < 0.001 < 0.01 0.061
Wealth index
 Poorest 7 (10.2) 6 (10.8) 6 (10.6) 12 (9.2) 27 (7.4)
 Poorer 10 (13.1) 4 (9.5) 6 (7.3) 9 (2.8) 40 (9.2)
 Middle 4 (6.3) 3 (4.2) 8 (9.3) 34 (13.6) 63 (12.6)
 Richer 6 (11.5) 3 (7.7) 17 (10.0) 48 (13.0) 89 (14.0)
Richest 7 (9.5) 3 (6.4) 74 (22.8) 111 (18.4) 147 (32.4)
p-value 0.453 0.176 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Size of the baby
 Average 12 (17.0) 10 (6.1) 56 (11.7) 136 (11.8) 224 (15.0)
 Large 19 (6.9) 4 (6.8) 35 (23.2) 49 (16.3) 75 (21.4)
 Small 3 (6.4) 5 (11.1) 19 (18.9) 28 (12.9) 67 (16.8)
p-value < 0.001 0.243 < 0.05 0.305 < 0.05
Place of delivery
 Government 27 (10.9) 10 (9.1) 71 (15.7) 112 (9.4) 138 (12.9)
 Private/others 7 (8.9) 9 (6.6) 40 (15.7) 102 (21.5) 228 (26.3)
p-value 0.558 < 0.05 0.992 < 0.001 < 0.001
ANC Visits
 Less than 4 15 (8.5) 127 (4.6) 29 (11.0) 32 (9.6) 44 (12.0)
 4 or more 19 (12.7) 107 (10.4) 82 (18.8) 182 (14.1) 322 (17.4)
p-value 0.154 < 0.05 < 0.05 0.081 < 0.05
Region
 Far western 1 (2.2) 2 (7.3) 8 (7.6) 18 (6.3) 23 (5.5)
 Eastern 10 (17.6) 4 (8.4) 21 (13.4) 61 (16.1) 105 (19.1)
 Central 14 (8.2) 13 (15.1) 40 (17.9) 15 (16.7) 96 (19.4)
 Western 5 (9.2) 0 (0) 30 (18.3) 43 (9.5) 110 (20.2)
 Mid-western 4 (11.1) 0 (0) 12 (11.1) 27 (7.5) 32 (5.8)
p-value < 0.05 < 0.01 0.204 < 0.001 < 0.001
  1. P value obtained from chi square or Fisher’s exact test analysis