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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of all women of reproductive age grouped by survey waves

From: Trends and correlates of cesarean section rates over two decades in Nepal

  NDHS-1996 Inst. births N = 334% NDHS-2001 Inst. births N = 235% NDHS-2006 Inst. births N = 854% NDHS-2011 Inst. births N = 1682% NDHS-2016 Inst. births N = 2485%
All births N = 3821% All births N = 4693% All births N = 4182% All births N = 4079% All births N = 4006%
Age of women
 ≤ 19 10.6 10.9 8.0 10.5 8.0 11.5 8.0 11.1 8.4 9.8
 20–29 58.7 71.7 57.4 61.4 63.6 65.9 36.6 67.6 66.3 68.0
 30 + 30.7 17.4 34.6 28.1 28.4 22.6 28.4 21.3 25.3 22.2
Religion
 Hindu 85.9 88.0 84.1 88.4 84.9 85.1 83.0 86.0 85.6 86.0
 Others 14.1 12.0 15.9 11.6 15.1 14.9 17.0 14.0 14.4 14.0
Education
 No education 79.2 41.8 72.7 48.8 57.9 28.1 43.9 24.2 31.5 20.3
 ≤ Primary 11.4 16.3 14.3 12.4 18.3 17.9 20.1 18.2 19.4 16.8
 ≥ Secondary 9.4 41.9 12.9 38.8 23.8 54.0 36.0 57.6 49.1 62.9
Residence
 Rural 93.5 64.4 93.2 83.9 86.8 66.9 89.9 81.1 44.4 35.1
 Urban 6.5 35.6 6.8 16.1 13.2 33.1 10.1 18.9 55.6 64.9
Cesarean section
 No 99.1 89.6 99.6 92.4 96.7 84.3 94.8 87.0 89.8 83.6
 Yes 0.9 10.4 0.4 7.6 3.3 15.7 5.2 13.0 10.2 16.4
Age at first marriage
 ≤ 19 88.5 74.1 87.7 77.5 83.7 68.3 77.7 68.0 74.2 67.8
 20–29 11.3 25.0 12.2 22.5 16.0 31.3 21.9 31.6 25.0 31.0
 30 + 0.2 0.9 0.1 0 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.8 1.2
Age at first birth
 ≤ 19 61.7 46.4 60.3 51.5 58.2 45.6 52.8 43.9 50.7 44.9
 20–29 37.5 50.2 39.0 47.3 40.6 51.7 46.0 54.4 48.0 53.3
 30 + 0.8 3.4 0.7 1.2 1.2 2.7 1.2 1.7 1.3 1.8
Occupation
 Not working 16.9 41.4 16.2 26.1 19.4 36.2 27.7 40.2 38.7 41.8
 Working 83.1 58.6 83.8 73.9 80.6 63.8 72.3 59.8 61.3 58.2
Wealth index
 Poorest 14.3 22.1 15.3 18.2 23.5 8.4 23.6 8.9 20.5 13.0
 Poorer 20.4 25.7 18.5 17.9 21.1 10.4 21.7 14.8 21.0 17.3
 Middle 19.2 17.3 15.8 21.0 20.0 12.3 21.0 19.9 21.6 21.7
 Richer 18.9 18.6 22.7 19.9 18.5 22.0 18.0 24.8 20.8 24.2
 Richest 27.1 16.3 27.8 23.0 16.9 46.9 15.7 31.6 16.1 23.8
Husband’s education
 No education 38.8 13.3 34.9 20.3 23.5 12.0 21.0 10.8 13.5 8.2
 ≤ Primary 23.9 15.6 24.7 18.7 28.8 20.2 23.7 17.1 21.2 16.7
 ≥ Secondary 37.2 70.7 38.1 58.6 47.2 67.7 54.8 71.9 64.3 74.1
 Missing 0.2 0.3 2.3 2.4 0.5 0.1 0.5 0.2 1.0 1.0
Body mass index
 High risk weight 27.5 25.3 28.6 27.4 30.6 33.1 14.8 16.2 18.1 19.0
 Normal 70.8 73.1 71.3 71.9 68.7 66.3 33.8 31.5 32.4 31.3
 Missing 1.7 1.6 0.2 6.2 0.7 0.6 51.4 52.3 49.5 49.7
Size of the baby
 Smaller than average 25.7 16.3 21.3 21.9 18.5 15.6 15.6 13.2 16.7 16.6
 Average 42.9 48.3 55.3 54.3 58.1 60.4 65.6 66.4 67.1 65.8
 Larger than average 31.4 35.4 23.4 23.8 23.4 24.0 18.8 20.4 16.3 17.6
Birth order
 First 21.7 39.9 20.8 37.6 26.9 49.4 31.4 48.1 37.5 48.8
 Second + 78.3 60.1 79.2 62.4 73.0 50.6 68.6 51.9 62.5 51.2
Place of delivery
 Home 91.7 0 94.8 0 79.2 0 59.8 0 38.1 0
 Government sector 6.2 75.1 2.0 38.1 14.4 69.2 28.3 70.4 45.6 73.6
 Private sector 2.1 24.9 3.2 61.9 6.4 30.8 11.9 29.6 16.3 26.4
Antenatal care visits
 ≤ 3 88.2 51.8 85.8 54.1 70.5 39.6 49.9 25.9 30.6 17.7
 ≥ 4 9.0 47.4 14.0 45.6 29.5 60.4 50.1 74.1 69.4 82.3
 Missing 2.8 0.8 0.2 0.3       
Development Region
 Eastern 21.1 20.5 23.2 20.1 21.7 18.9 24.1 26.2 23.1 24.1
 Central 33.2 48.5 32.3 35.7 32.7 46.4 31.1 31.4 35.4 33.4
 Western 20.0 18.3 19.2 25.2 18.6 17.7 19.7 21.0 18.9 20.0
 Mid-western 15.6 6.6 14.7 12.6 12.6 9.8 14.4 12.3 14.0 12.7
 Far-western 10.1 6.1 10.6 6.4 14.4 7.2 10.6 9.1 8.6 9.8
  1. NDHS National Demographic and Health Survey, Inst. Births Institutional-based deliveries
  2. All births are total births, including home delivery and institutional deliveries in the respective survey rounds, whereas institutional births are the total number of births in an institution in the respective survey waves