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Table 5 Echocardiographic parameters and cardiac biomarkers in monochorionic (n = 12) and dichorionic (n = 10) twin pregnancies

From: Morphofunctional cardiac changes in singleton and twin pregnancies: a longitudinal cohort study

  2nd trimester 3rd trimester PP1 PP2
monochorionic twins (women tested) (n = 11) (n = 11) (n = 12) (n = 12)
dichorionic twins (women tested) (n = 7) (n = 10) (n = 10) (n = 10)
LVDd, mm mono 46 (2.0) 45 (4.2) 48 (2.6) 44 (3.0)
di 44 (2.7) 46 (4.2) 47 (3.4) 45 (3.3)
LV ejection fraction (LVEF), % mono 65 (5.0) 64 (7.3) 65 (4.6) 63 (5.6)
di 66 (3.0) 63 (4.5) 65 (4.1) 62 (5.4)
LV mass (LVM), g mono 101 (14) 120 (17) 131 (17) 97 (12)
di 89 (6.3) 111 (14) 120 (21) 91 (16)
LVM/BSA (LVMI), g/m2 mono 64 (8.3) 73 (9.6) 83 (13) 64 (6.1)
di 58 (4.5) 70 (7.1) 78 (10) 61 (8.9)
LA diameter PLAX, mm mono 33 (3.3) 34 (2.6) 35 (2.9) 29 (3.2)
di 29 (2.4) * 34 (4.1) 33 (4.6) 29 (4.7)
Maximum LA volume, mL mono 40 (5.8) 45 (13) 54 (13) 34 (9.0)
di 41 (13.4) 46 (14) 47 (18) 31 (13)
Maximal LA volume/BSA (LAVI), mL/m2 mono 26 (3.5) 27 (7.5) 34 (7.6) 22 (5.6)
di 26 (7.9) 29 (7.3) 30 (10) 20 (7.9)
Inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter, mm mono 10 (3.2) 8.8 (2.6) 15 (4.7) 13 (4.8)
di 13 (2.7) * 9.9 (4.2) 16 (5.4) 13 (5.8)
Stroke volume, mL mono 69 (9.7) 68 (15) 77 (17) 63 (9.7)
di 64 (9.7) 63 (9.2) 70 (8.9) 60 (6.9)
Cardiac output (CO), L/min mono 5.3 (0.9) 5.8 (1.3) 4.9 (0.9) 4.6 (0.9)
di 4.9 (0.9) 5.5 (0.9) 5.0 (1.0) 3.9 (0.9)
CO/BSA (CI), L/min/m2 mono 3.4 (0.7) 3.6 (0.9) 3.1 (0.6) 3.0 (0.6)
di 3.2 (0.6) 3.4 (0.6) 3.2 (0.6) 2.6 (0.4)
Systemic vascular resistance, dyn∙s/cm5 mono 1044 (261) 1023 (299) 1233 (271) 1502 (391)
di 1097 (197) 1108 (242) 1210 (258) 1559 (255)
Mitral inflow parameters
 E/A mono 1.7 (0.5) 1.3 (0.3) 1.9 (0.6) 1.3 (0.4)
di 1.6 (0.4) 1.3 (0.3) 1.8 (0.6) 1.5 (0.3)
 E/e’ average (E/e’) mono 5.9 (1.9) 5.8 (1.6) 7.0 (1.4) 4.7 (0.8)
di 5.8 (1.1) 6.3 (1.7) 6.7 (1.5) 4.8 (1.0)
Cardiac biomarkers
 BNP, pg/mL mono 11 (5.1–22) 15 (6.4–24) 62 (54–89) 5.0 (1.9–9.5)
di 11.4 (5.8–21) 21 (10–41) 45 (21–66) 9.2 (4.7–17)
 NT-proBNP, pg/mL mono 27 (18–48) 34 (24–107) 203 (129–381) 17 (9.5–24)
di 27 (25–93) 53 (42–134) 160 (72–219) 38 (19–80)
 hs-TnI, pg/mL mono 1.2 (0.4–2.0) 1.5 (1.0–2.1) 2.1 (1.4–11) 1.7 (0.7–2.0)
di 0.5 (0.1–1.3) 1.5 (1.0–2.4) 1.4 (0.9–2.1) 0.4 (0.2–1.2)
  1. Data are presented as means (SD) for echocardiographic parameters and as medians (25th – 75th) for cardiac biomarkers; *, P < 0.05 vs. the value of monochorionic twin pregnancy
  2. A Late diastolic mitral flow velocity, BNP B-type natriuretic peptide, BSA Body surface area, di Dichorionic twins, E Early diastolic mitral flow velocity, e’ ave. Average of early diastolic septal and lateral mitral annular velocity, hs-TnI High-sensitivity troponin I, LA Left atrium, LV Left ventricle, LVDd LV end-diastolic dimension, mono Monochorionic twins, NT-proBNP N-terminal fragment of precursor protein B-type natriuretic peptide, PLAX From parasternal long-axis view