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Table 3 Individual-level validation in registers and exit surveys of bag-mask-ventilation indicator, EN-BIRTH study (n = 22,752)

From: Neonatal resuscitation: EN-BIRTH multi-country validation study

  Bangladesh Bangladesh Nepal Tanzania Tanzania All sites
Azimpur Tertiary Kushtia District Pokhara Regional Temeke Regional Muhimbili National Pooled (random effects)
D1) Live births and fresh stillbirths
Survey-reported
  Observer coverage % 0.7 (0.4,1.0) 5.9 (5.0,7.0) 2.1 (1.8,2.5) 6.4 (5.9,7.1) 7.1 (6.3,8.0) 4.0 (1.7,7.0)
  Survey reported coverage % 0.5 (0.3,0.9) 1.9 (1.4,2.6) 0.3 (0.2,0.5) 0.7 (0.5,1.0) 1.4 (1.0,1.9) 0.9 (0.5,1.5)
  "Don’t know” responses % 3.5 (2.8,4.3) 1.0 (0.7,1.6) 1.6 (1.3,1.9) 0.2 (0.1,0.4) 4.2 (3.5,5.1) 1.8 (0.6,3.6)
  Sensitivity % (95% CI) 6.7 (0.2,31.9) 21 (14.2,29.2) 12.9 (7.0,21.0) 9.5 (6.2,13.8) 5.0 (2.0,10.1) 11.3 (6.4,17.5)
  Specificity % (95% CI) 99.5 (99.2,99.7) 99.2 (98.7,99.5) 99.9 (99.7,99.9) 99.7 (99.5,99.8) 98.9 (98.3,99.2) 99.5 (99.1,99.8)
  Percent agreement (TN + TP/n) % 99.0 94.9 98.4 95.6 93.7 96.6 (94.3,98.4)
Register-recorded
  Observer coverage % 0.7 (0.4,1.0) 5.9 (5.0,7.0) 6.4 (5.9,7.1) 7.1 (6.3,8.0) 4.5 (1.8,8.4)
  Register recorded coverage % 0.9 (0.6,1.5) 7.2 (6.1,8.4) 5.4 (4.9,6.0) 5.0 (4.3,5.8) 4.3 (2.1,7.1)
  Not recorded % 98.9 (98.3,99.3) 92 (90.7,93.1) 9.0 (8.3,9.7) 45.4 (43.8,47.1) 66.0 (15.7,99.3)
  Not readable % 0.2 (0.1,0.5) 0.8 (0.5,1.3) 0.3 (0.2,0.4) 0.2 (0.1,0.5) 0.3 (0.2,0.6)
  Sensitivity % (95% CI) 23.5 (6.8,49.9) 16.4 (10.2,24.4) 48.4 (43.6,53.4) 12.4 (8.6,17.2) 24.6 (7.2,48.1)
  Specificity % (95% CI) 99.2 (98.8,99.6) 93.4 (92.2,94.4) 97.6 (97.2,97.9) 95.5 (94.8,96.2) 96.8 (94.3,98.6)
  Percent agreement (TN + TP/n) % 98.7 89.0 94.4 89.7 93.6 (88.8,97.2)
D2) Non-crying
Survey-reported
  Observer coverage % 3.6 (2.1,6.2) 12.0 (9.5,15.1) 6.8 (5.7,8.2) 17.4 (15.7,19.2) 17.8 (15.4,20.4) 10.9 (6.1,17.0)
  Survey reported coverage % 2.0 (0.9,4.3) 3.8 (2.3,5.9) 1.2 (0.7,2) 2.5 (1.7,3.4) 2.5 (1.5,4.2) 2.3 (1.5,3.3)
  "Don’t know” responses % 9.7 (6.9,13.4) 1.8 (0.9,3.5) 3.7 (2.8,4.9) 0.7 (0.4,1.3) 8.0 (6.0,10.6) 4.1 (1.5,8.0)
  Sensitivity % (95% CI) 9.1 (0.2,41.3) 16.1 (8.0,27.7) 14.7 (7.3,25.4) 10.8 (6.8,16.0) 7.4 (3.0,14.7) 11.6 (8.7,14.8)
  Specificity % (95% CI) 98.2 (96.2,99.3) 98 (96.2,99.1) 99.5 (99,99.8) 98.9 (98.1,99.4) 98.4 (96.9,99.3) 98.7 (98.0,99.3)
  Percent agreement (TN + TP/n) % 95.4 87.9 95.3 86.8 84.1 90.4 (85.1,94.6)
Register-recorded
  Observer coverage % 3.6 (2.1,6.2) 12 (9.5,15.1) 17.4 (15.7,19.2) 17.8 (15.4,20.4) 12.1 (6.9,18.5)
  Register recorded coverage % 3.3 (1.6,6.4) 8.5 (6.2,11.5) 13 (11.5,14.7) 7.2 (5.7,9.1) 7.9 (4.4,12.2)
  Not recorded % 96.7 (93.6,98.4) 90.9 (87.8,93.3) 10.1 (8.8,11.7) 47.1 (43.9,50.4) 64.4 (19.2,97.4)
  Not readable % 0.0 (0.0,1.7) 0.7 (0.2,2.1) 0.3 (0.1,0.7) 0 (0,0.5) 0.2 (0.0,0.6)
  Sensitivity % (95% CI) 25.0 (5.5,57.2) 11.1 (3.7,24.1) 46.8 (41.1,52.5) 13.5 (8.7,19.7) 23.7 (6.5,47.2)
  Specificity % (95% CI) 97.7 (95.1,99.2) 91.8 (88.8,94.3) 94.1 (92.8,95.3) 94.1 (92.2,95.7) 94.4 (92.4,96.1)
  Percent agreement (TN + TP/n) % 94.5 83.9 85.9 80.0 86.3 (81.1,90.8)
D3) Non-breathing
Survey-reported
  Observer coverage % 3.9 (2.2,6.7) 18.0 (13.8,23) 5.1 (4.1,6.4) 19.2 (16.9,21.7) 15.9 (13.3,18.9) 11.5 (5.5,19.5)
  Survey reported coverage % 1.9 (0.8,4.3) 5.8 (3.4,9.6) 1.0 (0.5,1.8) 2.7 (1.7,4.1) 2.3 (1.2,4.3) 2.5 (1.3,4.1)
  "Don’t know” responses % 10.6 (7.5,14.7) 2.3 (0.9,5.2) 3.2 (2.3,4.4) 0.6 (0.2,1.6) 7.1 (5.0,10.0) 4.1 (1.5,7.9)
  Sensitivity % (95% CI) 0.0 (0.0,30.8) 20.8 (10.5,35.0) 16.7 (7.0,31.4) 11.3 (6.2,18.6) 8.2 (2.7,18.1) 12.8 (8.0,18.5)
  Specificity % (95% CI) 98.0 (95.7,99.3) 97.6 (94.5,99.2) 99.6 (99.0,99.9) 98.8 (97.7,99.5) 98.7 (96.9,99.6) 98.7 (97.8,99.4)
  Percent agreement (TN + TP/n) % 94.9 83.3 96.7 86.1 86.0 90.1 (83.1,95.4)
Register-recorded
  Observer coverage % 3.9 (2.2,6.7) 18.0 (13.8,23.0) 19.2 (16.9,21.7) 15.9 (13.3,18.9) 13.6 (7.5,21.1)
  Register recorded coverage % 2.9 (1.3,6.1) 8.2 (5.1,12.7) 14.9 (12.8,17.3) 7.1 (5.4,9.4) 8.0 (3.7,13.7)
  Not recorded % 97.1 (93.9,98.7) 90.5 (85.8,93.8) 9.7 (8.0,11.8) 46.6 (42.8,50.4) 64.2 (19.3,97.2)
  Not readable % 0.0 (0.0,1.9) 1.3 (0.3,4.0) 0.2 (0.0,0.8) 0.0 (0.0,0.7) 0.2 (0.0,0.7)
  Sensitivity % (95% CI) 25.0 (5.5,57.2) 11.1 (3.1,26.1) 51.3 (44,58.5) 15.7 (9.4,24) 25.6 (7.2,50.2)
  Specificity % (95% CI) 98.3 (95.6,99.5) 92.3 (87.7,95.7) 93.8 (92,95.4) 94.5 (92.3,96.2) 94.8 (92.5,96.7)
  Percent agreement (TN + TP/n) % 94.6 79.7 85.6 82.1 85.9 (80.2,90.8)
  1. Full denominator details presented in Additional file 14