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Table 2 Stillbirths in Stockholm (78 women, 79 babies) and stillbirths in Sweden (314 women and 336 babies), 2017

From: Could a multidisciplinary regional audit identify avoidable factors and delays that contribute to stillbirths? A retrospective cohort study

  Stillbirths Stockholm
n = 78
mean (SD) or n (%)
Stillbirths Sweden
n = 314
mean (SD) or n (%)
p valuea/
Maternal characteristics
 Age (years) 32.2 (5.1) 30.4 (5.5) < 0.001
 BMIb 25.5 (4.4) 26.6 (5.4) 0.09
 Smokersc 4 (5) 18 (5.7) 0.80
 In vitro fertilization 4 (5) 18 (5.7) 0.80
 Nullipara 20 (25.6) 156 (49.7) < 0.001
 Duplex 5 (6.4) 22 (7) 0.47
 At least one previous miscarriage 26 (33.3) 71 (22.6) 0.05
 Complications of pregnancyd 9 (11.5) 3 (0.9) < 0.001
Socio-economic situation
 Living with the father of the child 69 (87.3) 266 (84.7) 0.66
 Single mother 4 (5) 7 (2.2) 0.17
 Education: more than 3 years postsecondary 29 (39.7) 94 (29.9) 0.09
 Working fulltime 38 (48.7) 118 (37.6) 0.09
 Country of birth   0.13
  Sweden 33 (42.3) 216 (64.3)  
  Asia 17 (21.8) 57 (16.9)  
  Africa 15 (19.2) 34 (10.1)  
  Europe 2 (2.6) 18 (5.4)  
  South America 2 (2.6) 1 (0.3)  
  Unknown/Missing 5 (6.4) 10 (3)  
Onset of labor    0.92
 Spontaneous 17 (21.5) 69 (20.5)  
 Induced 53 (67.1) 230 (68.5)  
 Caesarean (ES + AS) 9 (11.4) 36 (10.7)  
Method of delivery    0.43
 Spontaneous vaginal 67 (84.8) 287 (85.4)  
 Vacuum 2 (2.5) 2 (0.6)  
 Caesarean (ES + AS) 10 (12.6) 47 (13.9)  
Foetal characteristics n = 79 n = 336  
 22–32 weeks 33 (41.8) 137 (40.8) 0.65
 Term pregnancies 27 (34.2) 121 (36) 0.39
 Birth weight (g) 1953 (1241) 2029 (1231) 0.65
 Length (cm) 42 (10.1) 43 (9.7) 0.41
 Female gender 41 (51.8) 170 (50.6) 0.84
 Malformations 6 (7.6) 6 (1.7) < 0.001
 Small for Gestational Age 32 (40.5) 97 (28.9) 0.03
  1. ap value significant if < 0.05
  2. bBMI = Body Mass Index = weight in kg/height x height in m2, calculated at the beginning of pregnancy
  3. cSmokers at the beginning of the pregnancy
  4. dGestational diabetes, preeclampsia, hypertension, or cholestasis of pregnancy
  5. The continuous variables are presented as mean and SD
  6. The categorical variables are presented as numbers (percentages of total)
  7. ES elective caesarean section, AS acute caesarean section