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Table 1 Mutually exclusive classification system for indication for intrapartum cesarean birth

From: Risk factors associated with adverse maternal outcomes following intrapartum cesarean birth: a secondary analysis of the WHO global survey on maternal and perinatal health, 2004–2008

Indication Group Description
1 Fetal Fetal growth restriction, fetal Distress, “other fetal indication”
2 Failure to Progress/Dystocia Cephalopelvic disproportion, dystocia, failure to progress, failed vacuum or forceps, failed induction of labor, post-term, and suspected or imminent uterine rupture
3 Maternal/Obstetric Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, third trimester vaginal bleeding, “other maternal indication”, “other obstetric indication”
4 Multiples/Malpresentation Multiple gestation, non-vertex presenting fetus
5 Elective Previous cesarean section, tubal ligation/sterilization, maternal request, previous repaired urogenital fistula
6 No Other Indication Does not have any of the other indications specified