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Table 2 Odds ratios of male hypospadias

From: Association of abnormal placental perfusion with the risk of male hypospadias: a hospital-based retrospective cohort study

Characteristics Male hypospadias
Crude odds ratio (95% CI) Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)
Placental perfusion
 Normal 1.00 1.00
 Abnormal a 2.87 (1.33–6.18) 2.40 (1.09–5.29)
 NA 1.10 (0.52–2.29) 1.12 (0.53–2.37)
Preeclampsia
 No 1.00 1.00
 Yes Mild 1.76 (0.54–5.73) 1.56 (0.47–5.11)
Severe 10.81 (3.82–30.66) 7.75 (2.62–22.89)
Maternal age at delivery (years)
 ≥ 35 1.00 1.00
 25–34 0.89 (0.35–2.27) 0.74 (0.27–1.99)
 < 25
Residence
 Shanghai 1.00 1.00
 Other provinces 0.78 (0.36–1.67) 0.90 (0.41–1.96)
Parity
 Nulliparous 1.00 1.00
 Multiparous 0.41 (0.13–1.31) 0.39 (0.11–1.33)
Gestational diabetes mellitus
 No 1.00 1.00
 Yes 0.80 (0.25–2.60) 0.68 (0.21–2.23)
Assisted conception
 No 1.00 1.00
 Yes 2.66 (0.64–11.02) 1.96 (0.45–8.55)
  1. NA Not applicable
  2. a Abnormal placental perfusion was defined as any one abnormality of the six markers, which otherwise were normal